Todd's Research

While all the entries in this area are in the form of "blogs," that's really not what they are. I will put all my research notes in here, appropriately categorized so you folks can comment.

9:06 am

Blackhawk Research

The November 10, 1910 edition of The Iron Trade review announces the formation of the American Grinder Manufacturing Co.  Officers are:

  • Charles A. Krause (President of the C. A. Krause Milling Co.)
  • Leo Bethke
  • Frank Lueck

Mr. Bethke apparently was not involved with the company for a long period of time.  In 1916 he filed for a patent on a clamping device, with the assignee being the Luther Grinder Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee.  Soon after, he filed several patents with the assignee being the Chain Belt Company, also of Milwaukee.  Here is a detailed history of the Chain Belt Co. from 1916.

In 1911, Polk's Wisconsin State Gazetteer and Business Directory lists C. A. Krause as President and Treasurer, and Frank Lueck as Secretary.  There is no mention of Mr. Bethke.  The address is also listed as 911 32nd St.

In the 1913 edition of R. L. Polks Wisconsin State Gazetteer, American Grinder is listed as being located in the "Stroh Building."

The 1929 edition of the SAE Handbook shows the address for Blackhawk Mfg. at 148 Broadway in Milwaukee.

In attempting to determine the timeframe for Blackhawk becoming part of New Britain, I found a blurb in the 1955 edition of the Welding Engineer that still lists them as "The Blackhawk Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin."  Link to blurb is here.  The blurb is in reference to "Hexite" and Blackhawk's use of Hexite in the production of their Nugget Series.

In the 1939 Edition of Motor Age, Blackhawk announces their Hexite Nugget series of wrenches and socket wrenches.

In 1951, the Automotive Service Digest anounces the new "Bald Headed Ratchet."

It appears that sometime in the mid 1940's the Hexite steel was unavailable up until at least late 1947 and the Nuggets were not being produced.

1928 - Earliest mention of Blackhawk-Armstrong wrenches thus far.

We discovered that in the 1955 New Britain Machine Company Annual Report, NB announces the acquisition of Blackhawk in October of 1955.

Edward M. Pfauser

Mr. Pfauser was a prolific inventor for Blackhawk Manufacturing Co.  Born in Minnesota in 1894, it appears he began his tenure as an engineer for Blackhawk in about 1926.  In 1925 he is listed in the Oshkosh city directory as a clerk for an unidentified company.  From the records I can locate, Mr. Pfauser's highest level of education was 1st grade.  Regardless of his level of education, Mr. Pfauser is responsible for virtually every innovative design produced by Blackhawk from the mid-1920's until they were acquired by New Britain Machine Co. in 1955.  Notable among these inventions are the famous "Lock-on" feature, "free-wheeling" ratchets, Porta-Power sets, and almost every hydraulic pump manufactured by Blackhawk.  Mr. Pfauser also invented other products such as a self propelled lawn mower in the 1960's.  Here is a link to Google Patents listing Mr. Pfauser's designs/patents.

Mr. Pfauser passed away in Wisconsin in 1981.

Bonney Research

Over the course of our intense research, and in consideration of comments to this blog and submitted by you, the community, this page will represent a living research review of Bonney. First, a little review and comment on existing Bonney history.

1. It is commonly thought that the "Bonney Vise & Tool Works" was founded by Charles S. Bonney in 1877. Our intention here is not to refute that, but offer some newly surfaced information that may or may not rewrite this piece of Bonney history.

1a. The recently discovered 1886 Bonney catalog contains some interesting information. First, on the cover, the catalog seems to "announce" the Bonney Vise & Tool Co. (Limited) as successors to C.S. Bonney & Son. This would suggest that Bonney was in fact founded as C.S. Bonney & Son and not Bonney Vise & Tool Co. as previously thought.

1b. Regarding the formation date of the company. While we haven't found anything that refutes the 1877 date, Charles S. Bonney is the grantee of at least 4 patents that predate 1877. C.S. Bonney's first 3 patents, the first being granted in 1868 as Patent 76984, have no assignees, and unknown manufactures. In 1877, C.S. Bonney patented an improved Hollow Auger, whose manufacturer is also unknown to DATAMP but whose assignee is Lloyd, Supplee & Walton of Philadelphia, PA. According to the website Yesteryears Tools, Lloyd, Supplee & Walton existed from 1867 to 1889. Yesteryear's Tools also notes that Lloyd, Supplee & Walton produced the Bonney patented Hollow Auger. This is the first patent granted to C.S. Bonney with an identified assignee. An example of the Hollow Auger can be seen here.

At this point, I'm willing to stick my neck out and say that our example of the Hollow Point Auger is an example of those produced by Lloyd, Supplee & Walton, partly because there is no evidence Bonney itself produced them and secondly, I believe the "S" on the end of Bonney stamped onto the tool indicates a possessive, hinting that it was made either "for" Bonney or with his license / blessing.

So it seems C.S. Bonney & Son was the name of the company started by C.S. Bonney sometime in 1876. On July 28th, 1885, C.S. Bonney sold his interest in the company to John B. Newkirk (See image 1 below - an excerpt from the 1886 Bonney Vise & Tool Co. catalog). In this catalog, the proprietors of the Bonney Vise & Tool Co. are listed as J. B. Newkirk, C. W. Ritchie, and I. R. Newkirk.

Bonney after "Bonney Vise & Tool Co." - Very shortly after his departure, C.S. Bonney started the Bonney Rapid Vise Co., also in Philadelphia.  This company produced 2 primary products; the rapid transit vise, and a unique pipe vise.  On October 1, 1888, Bonney moved the company to Clinton, Iowa, as evidenced by this article.  Here is the pipe vise patent, granted in February 1887, Patent #357306.

In the Report of the Secretary of the Iowa State Agricultural Society, for the Year 1887, the Bonney Rapid Vise Company is reported to have been created in Clinton, Iowa on October 1, 1887.

In the May 21, 1891 edition of Iron and Machinery World, there is an article describing the Bonney Rapid Transit Vise.  Within this article, production of the vise is handled by the Bonney Rapid Vise Company of Marion, Indiana, the general manager being Mr. C. S. Bonney.

The Company Name:

C.S. Bonney & Son - 1876 to 1881

Bonney Vise & Tool Co., Limited - 1881 to 1886?

In either 1886 or 1887, Bonney Vise & Tool Co. was renamed to Bonney Vise & Tool Works.

Bonney Vise & Tool Works - 1887 to 1921

Bonney Forge & Tool Works - 1921 to 1994

Now, this gets confusing when you look up the next patent in DATAMP where Bonney is identified as the manufacturer, and referred to as "Bonney Vise & Tool Works" again in 1915. Patent #1141602, granted to Joseph P. Baker and assigned to J. Edward Durham was Applied for on Aug. 06, 1913 and Granted on Jun. 01, 1915. Given the inconsistencies, I'm beginning to think the DATAMP database (which is where I'm getting the above patent assignment / manufacturer data) is flawed somewhat in terms of company names.

Catalogs and Numbering - Here I will place a mapping of catalog numbers to year of publication as I find them:

Bonney Catalog Number Map

1910 - Catalog #15

1912 (unconfirmed) - Catalog #16 (Announced August, 1913 - could be 1912?)

1913 (uncomfirmed) - Catalog #17 (#16 is likely 1912 making #17 1913)

1914 - Catalog #18

1915 - Cement Tools Catalog #19

1917 (uncomfirmed) - Catalog #20 (A Bonney Catalog is mentioned in a 1917 announcement in the Iron Tradesman)

1919 - Catalog #21

1925? - There is an announcement of Bonney catalog #25 in the 1925 edition of "the Automotive Manufacturer."  However, catalog #26 is marked "copyright 1925."

1925-1926 - Catalog #26

1932 - #32

1933 - #33

1934 - #134

1937 - #137 - Also, Catalog M (referenced in the February, 1937 edition of Popular Mechanics.)

1938 - #138

1939 - #139

1941 - #41

1946 -

  • Catalog #46R - Tools for Refrigeration Service
  • Catalog WT 46 - Branch Pipe Outlets with Bonney Weldolet Fittings.
  • Catalog #46J - General Tools

**NOTE** We are still sorting out the C- and D- series catalogs issued in the years following WWII

1957 - #57

I also found a reference to "Hercules" Bonney on page 452 of the 1922 Engineering Directory. Unsure of the meaning but Hercules was stamped on later oversize ratchets contained in 3/4" and 1" drive sets.

Here is a link laying out the history of the Bonney Trademark, showing it currently owned by Snap-On Tools.

***NOTE*** Image 2 below announcing Bonney Vise & Tool Works being "Succeeded by Newkirk, Ritchie, & Bells" sometime in 1887. This snippet is from the January - December, 1887, Volumes 13 & 14 of the Mechanical Engineer periodical. This announcement appears on page 63.

***NOTE*** Image 3 below was found in the 1890 edition of Philadelphia Securities - A Manual For Investors. It appears Bonney was still owned and manufactured under Newkirk, Ritchie & Bills, at least through 1890, possibly 1892. Note: see the Bonney timeline for clarification of the Bills/Bells.

July 12, 1902 edition of The Iron Age announces the 1902 Bonney catalog.  Unfortunately, no catalog number was given.

Just tracked down the following text from the December 15th, 1917 Edition of the Allentown Leader (gossip section):

"GUESTS OF COL. FRANKLIN. Lieutenant Colonel C. P. Franklin, executive officer of the Ambulance Camp, had as a visitor Thursday his father-in-law, Henry G. Bonney of Philadelphia, the founder of the Bonney Vise and Tool Works. With him was his son, Lieut. Kenneth C. Bonney,, who enlisted in the Coast Artillery and won a commission. He had been sent to France and England on special missions and is now going across again for active service."

The above "blurb" is interesting in that it notes Henry Bonney (C. S. Bonney's son) as the "founder" of Bonney Vise and Tool Works, backing up the C. S. Bonney & Son theory.

This article from The Denison Review, Denison, IA 7/17/1912 describes a family reunion at the Bonney residence.  It identifies Mr. Bonney's children, 3 sons and 2 daughters.  It also notes a grandaughter who married into the Vehslage family.  Mssrs Bonney and Vehslage started the Bonney - Vehslage company in Newark, NJ which remains in operation today.

9/8/2015 There is evidence of a Trademark (or patent, but more likely trademark) number 105,480 for a "Combination Tool" in the Official Gazette of the Patent Office - 1935 being renewed July 27, 1935. We cannot find any other information on this number. Link to USPTO Gazette.  UPDATE - Here is the link to the Trademark for "Tomahawk," a "combination hammer, hatchet, pincers, wire-cutter, belt-punch, tack claw, screw-driver and wire-splicing clamp."

Machinery Volume 20 of 1915, discusses the release of a new Bonney catalog, Number 18. This should help us identify years with future catalog finds.

Update: we have found catalogs for 1914, 1915 and 1919. Working on getting them scanned. Link to Machinery Volume 20 of 1915 "Blurb"

Here is an article from the September 17, 1908 edition of The Iron Age that describes a new invention (patent undiscovered) by C. S. Bonney for an "Automatic Reversible Tapper."

In the 1937 (Volume 11) edition of Aeronautical Industry, Bonney Forge is listed as a manufacturer of "Flying Suits." 

1956 edition of Fleet Owner lists Bonney Forge and Tool Works in Alliance, Ohio.

9/25/1959 edition of the Princeton Alumni Weekly places Bonney still owned by Miller Manufacturing, operating out of Allentown and Alliance, OH.  The article states that pipe fittings & custom forgings are handled out of the Allentown plant while traditional mechanics tools are manufactured in Alliance, OH.

Miller Manufacturing began construction on the new plant in Alliance, OH in March of 1955, which was slated to be complete in October that same year.  By 1956, when listing Bonney under hand tools, publications list the address as Alliance, OH.

Miller Manufacturing sells Bonney Forge and Tool Works to Kelsey-Hayes on March 31, 1964

1940 - Bonney announces their "new line" of adjustable wrenches available in 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 inch models.


Charles Sherpard Bonney's Patents

  1. Thill Coupling / Bonnet: #76984
  2. Farm Gate: #82075A
  3. Improvement in Gates: #99822
  4. Hollow Auger: #105896
  5. Improvement in Hollow Augers (reissue of 105896): RE7689E
  6. Improvement in Sash Holders: #107157A
  7. Improvement in Clamps: #135882A
  8. Improvement in Saw-Filing Vises: #135883A
  9. Pipe Vise: #357306
  10. Pipe Wrench & Cutter: #721660A
  11. Pliers: #726794
  12. Wrench: #728842A
  13. Tool Holder: #973254
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Cornwell Research - A Tale of Tales

It has been the consistent story that Eugene Cornwell slaved over a forge in a small blacksmith shop in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio before creating Cornwell Tools.  In this blog, we will tell a much different tale. 

***Update 8-11-2016***

Due to newly discovered information, we are inclined to offer a new theory on the early Cornwell story.  We are asserting that B. L. Coleman, a noted area banker, and the Kemmerline family at some point in early 1919 decided to start a tool company.  Meanwhile, Eugene Cornwell had been perfecting a new process for treating and hardening steel just a couple hundred miles away in Northumberland, PA while running operations at his father's Keystone Forging Co..  We assert that Mr. Kemmerline was sold on the process and decided to name his company after the "Cornwell Process" for treating steel.  As far as Mr. H. L. Wandsneider, the only place the name appears is within the announcement below.  During this timeframe (late teens) and according to our research, it appears that the only place in the U.S. where any Wandsneider family member resided was Waukesha, WI.  We believe that Eugene Cornwell was simply offered an officer position in the company due to his steel treating contribution.  In the 1920 U. S. census, taken on 7 January, 1920 (just 40 or so days after registering Cornwell in Ohio) Eugene, his wife and children are living next door to Isaac Cornwell on Water St. in Northumberland, PA.  According to the 1930 census, Eugene and family are renting on Wark Ave. in Detroit, MI and he is working as a Mechanical Engineer for an Auto Factory.  By 1935, the family has moved to Fredericksburg, VA and own a home at 906 Sylvania Ave.  His draft registration card from 1941 shows him working for Sylvania Industrial Corp. in Fredericksburg, VA and living at the same Sylvania Avenue address.  Eugene passed away in 1972 and is buried in Fredericksburg, VA.  As a side note his son, also Eugene, was a WWII and Korean War Veteran and is buried in Arlington National Cemetary.

Conclusions / Conjecture:  We do not believe Eugene had anything more to do with Cornwell Quality Tools than simply the name and steel treating process.  However, while we have yet to find proof, we do find it plausible that Eugene returned to Northumberland and leveraged the die making and forging capabilities of Keystone Forging Co. to get his namesake company off the ground by producing their first tools. 

We also offer this link to the Ken-Tool website for their version of at least a portion of the Cornwell story.  However, we have found no evidence at all supporting the information on the Ken-Tool site.

Here is what we've found with regards to the J. A. Kennedy Story on the Ken-Tool website, and how it ultimately ties in to Cornwell:

  1. Kennedy founded the Pacific Rim Tool Co. in Cleveland in 1920.  The trademark (SN=185,369) on "PAC RIM" claims a first use date of 7/1/1920.  The PAC RIM tool is also known as the "Kennedy C. W. C."
  2. In 1925, Kennedy set up the Universal Rim & Tyre Co. in Birmingham England for European manufacturing of his rim tool.
  3. The Pacific Rim Tool Co. is last mentioned in the January, 1929 edition of Periodic Inspection
  4. The April, 1929 edition of Chilton has the Kennedy C. W. C. tool being manufactured by the APKO Pacific Tool Co. (also Cleveland)
  5. 1928 - APKO PATENT Tool Co. LTD (England) introduces an "adjustable rim tool" --- Is this relevant?  "APKO" is consistent?
  6. 8/27/1936 - Kennedy Service Tools Co. established -- Officers: Ingersoll, Kemmerline, Kennedy
  7. 1937 - Ken-Tool is founded by J. A. Kennedy, "formerly with the Kennedy Service Tools Co."

Update: Frank Kemmerline and Cornwell

A recently obtained article from the Akron Library (dated 8/11/1967) profiles the life of the philanthropic Frank Kemmerline.  It identifies Kemmerline as a major investor in Cornwell at the time of its founding in 1919.  The article also states that by 1924, Kemmerline was Treasurer and General Manager and moved the company to Mogadore shortly after becoming GM.  Further, the article states that Kemmerline donated the 2 acres upon which the Mogadore Cornwell factory was built.

As a result of this new information on Mr. Kemmerline, as well as the snippet of the formation of the Titan-Rite Co. by Coleman and Cornwell, we are leaning toward the idea that Kemmerline took over operations of Cornwell in 1924, at which point Eugene Cornwell moved on to other business, no longer having a role in the Cornwell company, except perhaps as an investor.

4/20/2016 Update:

A newly discovered article in the November 26, 1940 edition of The Akron Beacon Journal profiles the history of Cornwell Quality Tools and Frank Kemmerline.  The article notes that Frank and his brother Art were local dairy farm owners and investors in the Cornwell company at it's inception in 1919.  It further states that they invested more money in the company in 1920 when Frank became a director, and in 1921, the company was reorganized and Frank took over active management of the company.  The article notes that Frank recognized his lack of knowledge in the tool industry and promptly enrolled for two years at the Case School in Cleveland and furthered his knowledge spending a year in night school at Akron University.  The disposition of Eugene Cornwell and B. L. Coleman is not addressed in this particular article.

By September of 1924, Cornwell begins marketing their "Swedish Charcoal Process Molebdenum Steel" for the making of their tools.  Prior to this time, Corwell tools were marketed as being produced from the "Cornwell Secret Formula."

In the 1924/1925 edition of Michigan Alumnus (University Alumni Journal), an advertisement for United Alloy Steel Corporation of Canton, OH claims Cornwell Tools are made from their special "U-Loy" steel alloy.

If we follow the advertisements which appear in virtually every Popular Mechanics issue from 1923 on, we see that in May of 1928, Cornwell begins to mention "Chrome Molebdenum" as opposed to the traditional Swedish Charcoal Process Molebdenum Steel.  This appears to be a transition point for Cornwell tool alloys.

The 1926 Year Book of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers appears to list a Chas B. Ingersoll as President of Cornwell Quality Tools Co.  He is still listed as President in the 1928 edition.

The December 21, 1956 Edition of the Akron Beacon

The newspaper reports Mr. Kemmerline's retirement at age 74 and a "new team at the healm" of Cornwell operations.  The article notes he has been with Cornwell for 36 years (1920) and states that Mr. Kemmerline will stay on as Director and Chairman of the Board.  The article goes on to note that C. B. Ingersoll Sr. (age 72) has also resigned as President but will remain as Director.  The following is identified as the new management team:

  • Charles M. Zust - President & General Manager (former head of the Charles M. Zust Co. industrial management consultants and active consultant to Cornwell, as well as Chairman of the Executive Committee and a Director for the prior 2 1/2 years)
  • E. Arthur Kemmerline - Treasurer (Former VP, brother of J. F. Kemmerline and Cornwell veteran of 20 years.)
  • Robert C. Brouse - Secretary (Served as a Director at Cornwell since 1954)
  • Clifford E. Rickel - Controller and Assistant Treasurer (former Assistant Treasurer)
  • Kenneth H. Hulbert - VP Sales (Former General Sales Manager)
  • C. B. Ingersoll Jr. - Head of new product development and new Member of the Executive Committee

The article also notes many of Frank Kemmerline's achievements and affirms he will be acting in a consulting capacity.  His achievements as noted in the article include:

  • Instrumental in the early introduction of alloy steels to the industry;
  • Director of the Mogadore Savings Bank;
  • VP & Director of Permanent Federal Savings & Loan Association of Akron;
  • President of the Board of Trustees during construction of Green Cross Hospital in Cuyahoga Falls;
  • Trustee East Akron Board of Trade;
  • Member of Village Council of Mogadore;
  • Chairman of the Mogadore Sewer and Water Committee;
  • Along with his brother Arthur, planned developed and operated the Mogadore Knolls Golf Club.

While not tool related, it is interesting to note here that in 1964, the House Committee on Banking and Currency / Subcommittee on Domestic Finance published a report naming Frank Kemmerline as one of the "Twenty Largest Stockholders of Record in Member Banks of the Federal Reserve System."

UPDATE Vanadium Tool Co. Acquisition: We have discovered (thanks to a tip from a local Ohio resident) an article in the November 1, 1974 edition of The Messenger newspaper (requires free account to access link) of Athens, OH announcing the sale of Vanadium Tool Co. to Cornwell on October 30, 1974.  The article goes on to note that VTC has been producing wrenches for Cornwell for a number of years and will continue to produce wrenches, punches, and chisels under the Vanadium name and expand it's production of Vanadium and Cornwell items.  The article further notes that Mr. Topping will continue as President and that he purchased VTC from Mr. Harmon in 1969.  The article also notes that VTC was founded by Mr. Harmon, his father and three other unnamed men in 1945.

The accouncement of Mr. Topping's purchase is also carried in The Messenger of June 22, 1969 (free account needed to access link).  The article notes that Mr. Topping was VP of Sales for SK-Wayne, a subsidiary of Dresser at the time.  It further states that Mr. Topping had been Sales and Plant Manager of SK - Lectrolite in Defiance.  The article further notes the other investors: John H. Melcher, Jr.; Thomas J. McCann, Jr.; H. Clark Harvey, Jr.  This article also notes that the Harmon family owned VTC outright since 1962.

In an article in The Messenger from July 23, 1972, it is revealed that VTC also makes tools for labels such as S-K and Craftsman.  The article goes on to note that they will be producing 700,000 punches for "a large tool maker" this year (1972).  Interestingly, and somewhat comical, Mr. Topping notes that "if he were approached by a large corporation seeking to take over his operation, he would not accept the offer."  This is just 2 years before selling the company to Cornwell.

Image Description: 

To tell this story properly, we must go back to 1913, when Isaac Cornwell (Eugene's father) and T. O. Van Alen bought out the majority stock holder (another Van Alen) and took over operations of the Keystone Forging Co. of Northumberland, PA.  Keystone Forging Co was incorporated in Northumberland, PA on 19 April, 1895.  The incorporators are notes as C. G. VanAlen, G. R. VanAlen, W. B. Waples "among others."  In March of 1896, the company increased it's former capacity by 40%.  In 1907, they doubled their capital stock.  This image pictures Mssrs. Cornwell and Van Alen from the August 1919 edition of The Spokesman.

At the time of the takover, the officers were:

  • Isaac Cornwell - President & General Manager
  • W. B. Waples - Vice President
  • T. O. Van Alen - Secretary / Treasurer
  • J. D. Weekes - Sales Manager

Isaac Cornwell took over leadership at Keystone in 1909, after having worked at the plant since 1894 and is credited with most of the growth and expansion of the company during that period.  -  Motor Body, November, 1909

After 1919, Isaac Cornwell basically disappears and does not show up in any searches from 1920 on.  In 1923, Automotive Industries reports the merger of the Keystone Forging Co. with M. J. Ford Manufacturing Co.  The name of the company is reported to continue to be The Keystone Forging Co.  The Keystone Forging Co. survives today and here is a link to their history page.

Image 2 Description: 

Meanwhile, while his father was gaining control of the Keystone Forging Co., Eugene was finishing up his fourth year at Cornell University studying Mechanical Engineering.  Immediately after graduation, Eugene was hired by his father in 1915 to run all aspects of plant manufacturing operations, as well as the design of their dies.  Eugene was immediately voted onto the Board of Directors.  This article is from the September, 1915 edition of The Spokesman.

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Eugene is listed in all the publications of the day dealing with steel processing, treatment and production and always associated with The Keystone Forge Co.  We have found listings where Eugene is listed as the "attending representative" of Keystone as late as August of 1919.

This image comes from the December 18, 1919 Edition of Iron Age, announcing the formation of the Cornwell Tools Co. in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio.  We have found this same announcement as early as September, 1919 in other publications.  Officers noted in the announcement are:

  • B. L. Coleman - President
  • Eugene Cornwell - Vice President
  • H. L. Wandsneider - Secretary, Treasurer and General Manager

The article also mentions that mssrs. Cornwell and Coleman have been operating a plant in Pittsburgh using the Cornwell process for forging, treating and tempering tools.

Other announcements name the company as "The Cornwell Quality Tools Co." and also list a C. R. Barnes and L. Orlando Wilcox as principals.

We found the Ohio State Record - Annual Report of the Secretary of State noting the official state corporation filing date for the Cornwell company of 11/14/1919.

Very little information has been discovered regarding the time between the formation of the company and mid-1923, when advertisements begin appearing monthly in the Popular Mechanics publications.

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Image 4 Description: 

The January? 1925 edition of The Iron Trade Review announces the formation of a new company by the name of The Titan-Rite Co. in Elmira, NY to manufacture machinist tools.  This is important because the officers of this company are B. L. and L. A. Coleman, and E. Cornwell.  Very little information exists on the Titan-Rite Co. however we were able to locate a listing on The Wrenching News website for a Titan-Rite Fence Tool (Item 0470).  The patent (1,613,871) for the Fence Tool was filed by B. L. Coleman on Apr 6, 1925 and awarded on January 11, 1927.  The 1944 edition of the Robert D. Fisher Manual of Valuable and Worthless Securities appears to note that the Titan-Rite company went out of business in 1936.  Very little information exists on Eugene Cornwell's life after Titan-Rite.  The 1930 census lists his location as Michigan.  One geneological website references his occupation as having been an engineer with Sylvania.

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Image 5 Description: 

This is a picture from the 11th Annual Cornwell Sales Conference held in December of 1940.  At the left is E. A. Kemmerline (VP), to his right is Forest Kemmerline (Sec), Mr. Wise (host), and far right is Frank Kemmerline.

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Image 6 Description: 

In 1957, Cornwell was sold to Raymond H. C. Moeller and B. D. Gordon.  The men overhauled Cornwell, modernizing production facilities, uniforming the sales force, and expanding Cornwell's distribution to a much wider base.  By 1962, Cornwell's sales were growing at an average of 25% per year.

We believe that the fathers of Messrs. Moeller and Gordon were prolific "company founders" throughout the 1920 - 1940s timeframe.  We find no less than 15 companies where they are listed as officers in new companies.

Duro / Indestro Research

This blog is intended to clear up the mysteries of the Duro / Indestro connection.  Below, I will lay out what I've found thus far, but here are the highlights:

1. The "Indestro" Bottle Capper was a product of the E. M. Blumenthal & Co manufacturing company as of October, 21 1921.  It was being marketed / distributed by the Sure Steel Bottle Capper Company, also of Chicago.  At this point we believe that "Indestro" was simply a product name.  We believe this is in reference to the claims of "It is impossible to break a bottle" in most of their advertisements of the day.

2. Duro was established in 1918 and the notice below identifies Messrs Alferd W. Hays and Alfred N. Powell as principals.  However, we found the business registration in the state of Illinois on 2/16/1918, listing Messrs Gertude, McNaught and Odlum as registrants.  Research continues on the identities/roles of Hays, Gertude and Powell.

3. According to the 1932 edition of Steel, Indestro is Incorporated at 2649 N. Kildare Ave. by a Warren Horton of 2300 Board of Trade Building.  We should note here again the fact that there has not been an actual business registration document discovered.

4. We found a copyright registration for the Indestro "All Steel Products" Catalog #3 on 10/1926.  Given this, we are searching for proof of corporate formation around 1924, assuming yearly catalog production.

5. While we have yet to acquire an original copy, in 1943 there was a formal complaint against the Indestro Manufacturing Corp. with the Federal Trade Commission.  If Indestro were a subsidiary, we would have to believe the complaint would be formally filed against the parent company, or as a minimum, name them in the complaint.  Indestro Manufacturing Corp. is the only entity mentioned.

1/13/2016 update to the Duro / Indestro story.  In a search of the Canadian Trademark records, we found that Duro Metal Products registered trademarks for "Duro" and "Duro-Chrome" on 1/10/1933.  Curiously, Indestro also registered the "Indestro" trademark on 1/10/1933, with Indestro Mfg. Corp. listed as registrant, and Duro Metal Products listed as owner.  However, more research is required in order to determine when the "owner" portion of the record was updated.

Addresses found thus far:


March - August, 1918 - 361 E. Ohio St. (Newspaper labor want ads)

1918 - 109 N. Dearborn St.

1919 - 361 E. Ohio St.

1921 - 361 E. Ohio St.

1922 - 360 E. Grand (First mentioned August 11 of 1918 in newspaper labor want ads)

1924 - 2649 N. Kildare Ave

1930 - 2649-59 N. Kildare Ave.

1932 - 2649-59 N. Kildare Ave.


1926 - 2650 Coyne St.

1927 - 2650 Coyne St.

1929 - 2650 Coyne St.

1931 - 3249 W. 47th

1932 - 2649 N. Kildare Ave.

1950 - N. Kildare at Schubert Ave

While the addresses for the two companies converge at 2649 Kildare Ave. in 1932, the 1935 Duro Metal Products Catalog mentions nothing of the Indestro line/brand.

On 12/8/1924, Norris McNaught filed patent #1,694,549 for vibration dampers / shock absorbers.

**NEW** 2/10/2016

It is also interesting to note here that while researching the Cragin Tool Company, and reading the 1939 Illinois State Certified List of Domestic Corporations, the entry above Cragin Tool lists the "Cragin Building Corp." at 2649 N. Kildare.  Most readers should immediately recognize this address as the home of Indestro and Duro at the same time from the notes above.

Yet another interesting note is that the MacLean-Fogg Lock Nut Co. also used the 2649 N. Kildare Ave. address from at least 1928 to at least 1937.  We assert that it is possible, perhaps even plausible that being a screw machine company, MacLean could have been churning out socket blanks for Duro and Indestro during the 1930's.  MacLean-Fogg was established in 1925 by J. A. MacLean (Pres.), J. W. Fogg (VP / Sales Mngr.) and Mr. William Odlum (VP / Treasurer).  This announcement from Manufacturers News in 1925 even includes Mr. McNaught as an officer and notes the Maclean-Fogg address at establishment in 1925 as 2649 N. Kildare.  This establishes a firm link between Duro and MacLean-Fogg and increases the likelihood of product collaboration.

UPDATE to above quote on MacLean-Fogg.  I spoke with the founder's son who noted that MacLean-Fogg did indeed rent floor space in the Duro factory.  Mr. Maclean also noted that his father did NOT manufacture sockets for Duro.  He also noted that his father rented part of the overall factory and recalled seeing some of the tool manufacturing operations.

We found a reference to a law suit against Indestro Mfg. Co. by Aetna Machine & Mfg. Co in 1925.

In at least 1931, Duro tools were being advertised in the Sears catalog under the "Durobilt" trademark (not yet found).

In the 10/13/1955 edition of the Arlington Heights Herald, Mrs. McNaught is noted as the Sec/Treas of Duro Metal Products Co.

In a 1959 edition of "El Automovile De Cuba," Duro and Indestro are mentioned as a single entity.

A 1961 volume of Motor (snippet unavailable) refers to Indestro as "Manufacturers of Duro-Chrome Hand tools."

In the 1973 edition of Chicago, Cook County Industrial Directory, Indestro and Duro are both listed, and all corporate officers are the same.

By 1974, and possibly earlier, Indestro is being referred to as "Duro Metal Products Co., Indestro Division."  By the early 1980's, the company as a whole is referred to as Duro/Indestro.

The 4/25/1974 edition of the Ironwood Daily Globe (Ironwood, MI) notes that the Ashland Forge Corp. is a subsidiary of Duro Metal Products.

On May 18, 1990, Duro transferred their trademarks to JAF, Inc. of :




NEW - 4/3/2017 - Here is some interesting information from the Made In Chicago Museum.

Image Description: 

According to the February, 1918 Edition of Mill Supplies, the Duro Metal Products Co. was established in Chicago with initial capital of $5000.

Image 2 Description: 

Multiple publications publish advertisements for the "Indestro All Steel Capper" in October, of 1921.  They all identify the manufacturer as the E. M. Blumenthal & Co.  We should note that no business registration has been found for this company.

Image 2: 
Image 3 Description: 

This advertisement identifies the Sure Steel Bottle Capper Company as the "Marketer / Purveyor."  We should note that again, no business registration has been located for this company.

Image 3: 
Image 4 Description: 

According to this note in the 11 December 1932 edition of the Chicago Tribune, it appears Indestro went into receivership in 1932, just prior to "shacking up" with Duro at their Kildare location.

Image 4: 

Excellent Research Sources

I thought I'd put this list together of the places I use to research these old tools, just in case anyone wants to conduct similar research. 

Google Books - Excellent source for old magazine / publication articles, books, advertisements, etc.  (HINT: USE the search tools at the top of the page when searching for specific date ranges, etc.)

Worldcat - Searches hundreds, if not thousands of library archives for online editions, editions in their holdings, etc.

Patents from 1790 - 1836 - "The X-Series Patents"

Commissioner of Patents Reports - 1849 - 1864 - These contain every patent issued yearly.

Commissioner of Patents Reports - 1865 - 1920

Commissioner of Patents Reports - 1920 forward.

Google Patents - Perhaps even better than USPTO Patent Search

USPTO Patent Search - Good for newer patents, cumbersome and "iffy" for patents older than 1972

USPTO Patent Application Search - I'm putting this here for posterity, no good for older applications.

USPTO Trademark search (TSDR - Documents)

USPTO Trademark Search (TESS - Much less reliable but shows history of ownership) - This site adds thousands of pages of content every day and, while it is a pay site, it is an excellent resource for research.

Hardware Chains & Tool Brand Research

Western Auto Supply Co.

Company Information:

  • Western Auto trademarked 12/30/1969, first use listed as "19190000"

Wikipedia writeup:

Western Auto Supply Company—known more widely as Western Auto—was a specialty retail chain of stores that supplied automobile parts and accessories. It operated approximately 1200 stores across the United States.  It was started in 1909 in Kansas City, Missouri, by George Pepperdine, who later founded Pepperdine University.

Western Auto was bought by Beneficial Corporation in 1961; Western Auto's management led a leveraged buyout in 1985, leading three years later to a sale to Sears. Sears sold most of the company to Advance Auto Parts in 1998, and by 2003, the resulting merger had led to the end of the Western Auto brand and its product distribution network.

ToolArchives Research:

Found 11/20/2015:

Hand Tool Brands:

  • Wizard
    • Trademark information on the Wizard brand states the earliest first use as 05/03/1937.  The "Wizard" brand was put on everything from refigerators to ironing boards, to screwdrivers to electric power tools.
  • Westcraft
    • Trademark information has a first award date of 9/11/1951, and notes first use in commerce as 11/3/1942.
  • ToolCraft - Western Auto appears to have attempted to trademark this name for all sorts of tools in the early 1990's but each filing was met with protest from an unknown entity.

Gamble's Auto Supply Co.

From Wikipedia

Born at the end of the 19th century, Bertin Gamble and Philip Skogmo were boyhood friends in Arthur, North Dakota (30 miles northwest of Fargo). As young men, they each came separately to Minnesota and worked in a variety of jobs. In 1920, they pooled their resources, borrowed some money and purchased the Hudson-Essex automobile agency in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, which they sold in 1921 after acquiring both the Ford and Dodge agencies in that city. Soon they discovered the sale of auto parts and accessories was the most profitable part of their car dealerships. In March 1925, they opened the first Gamble Auto Supply store in St. Cloud, Minnesota. In 1928, they moved their headquarters to Minneapolis. By 1929, the chain consisted of 55 stores in five states. Eventually, Gamble stores were franchised, and by 1939 there were 1,500 Gamble dealers and 300 corporate stores in 24 states. In 1947, Gamble-Skogmo went public with its first offering of common stock. Philip Skogmo died in 1949.[1]

The original Gambles store in St. Cloud (1925) was so successful that four more stores opened in the Dakotas within ten weeks. The partners decided to incorporate Gamble-Skogmo, Incorporated 1n 1928, and shortly thereafter moved the headquarters and central warehousing to Minneapolis. By the end of the year there were 55 Gambles retail outlets in five states. By 1933 they had added 100 more outlets and grown annual corporate sales to $10 million. Franchised dealerships were inaugurated in 1933 and, in 1941, clothing and other "softlines" were added to the staple "hardlines" business, a diversification made necessary by the unavailability of consumer hard goods during World War II.

The corporation went international in 1945 with the acquisition of the 270 Macleod hardlines retail outlets in Western Canada. Gamble-Skogmo went public in 1947, and partner Phil Skogmo died in 1949. The company expanded into mass merchandising by forming its Tempo Stores division in 1962, which grew into a chain of 50 discount shopping centers. The following year saw the acquisition of the 286-store Stedmans chain, which operated throughout Canada. In 1964 Gamble-Skogmo entered the catalog merchandising field by acquiring the large Aldens operation, including its life insurance subsidiary. In 1966 Founder's, Incorporated was merged into the corporation, bringing it a women's wear chain (Mode O'Day), and a group of variety stores including Cussins & Fearn and Rasco stores, and Buckeye Mart Discount Department Stores. In the same year the corporation also acquired the House of Fabrics chain and formed Gambles Import Corporation to direct the purchase of goods made overseas. In 1967 Gamble-Skogmo formed a real estate subsidiary, Gamble Development Company, to develop and lease shopping centers, and also acquired the 400-store Red Owl supermarket chain, which also included 62 Snyder's drug stores. Between 1969 and 1972 the corporation several leasing business lines, launched Gambles home improvement centers, and acquired the 24-store Woman's World clothing chain.

From the mid-1940s to the end of the 1970s, Gamble and Skogmo diversified their businesses into many new endeavors, including a discount division, financial services, real estate, and retail businesses such as Aldens mail order company, Woman's World Shops, Red Owl Grocery and Snyder Drug stores. At the end of this period of growth, Gamble-Skogmo was the 15th largest retailer in the United States with 4,300 stores and 26,000 employees in 39 states and Canada. In 1977, Bert Gamble retired from the company.[1] In 1978, they attempted a takeover of Washington, D.C.-based retail conglomerate Garfinckel, Brooks Brothers, Miller & Rhoads, Inc. Gamble-Skogmo purchased a 20-percent share from the Joseph R. Harris family, thereby gaining a controlling interest in the conglomerate. A court suit resulted in an agreement that Gamble-Skogmo would not acquire any more stock in Garfinckel.[2][3][4]

Gamble served as president and chief executive officer of Gamble-Skogmo, Incorporated, the umbrella firm that controlled the myriad operating companies, into 1963. He continued to serve as chairman of the board of directors and corporate CEO until retiring in September 1977.

In 1980, it was sold to the Wickes Corporation of California. The purchase was highly leveraged, the combined companies struggled, and in 1982 Wickes filed for bankruptcy.[1] In the subsequent reorganization, the Gamble-Skogmo empire was sold off in pieces or, in the case of Aldens, closed.[5] In 1986, Bert Gamble died. Following the Wickes' entry into receivership in 1984, the remaining Gamble-Skogmo businesses were returned to a new company formed by five Gambles Division officers, who reincorporated Gamble-Skogmo, Incorporated.



Aldens was established in 1889 under the name Chicago Mail Order and Millinery Company and was incorporated in Illinois on December 15, 1902. In 1906 the name of the business changed to Chicago Mail Order Company. In the mid-1930s Aldens expanded its operations through acquisitions. It acquired the goodwill and mailing lists of M.W. Savage Company of Minneapolis in April 1935, Hamilton Garment of New York in May 1936, and D.T. Bohon of Kentucky in June 1936.[6]

In 1946 the company changed its name to Aldens, Inc., and was the fourth-largest mail-order distributor in the United States. Gamble-Skogmo acquired a 46% interest in Aldens, and acquired the remaining stock in the company in 1964.[7] The catalog operation was liquidated in 1985.

Beginning in 1961 the company began offering life insurance for sale through its catalog, operated by its wholly owned subsidiary, John Alden Life Insurance Company.

Cussins & Fearn Company


Cussins & Fearn Co., Northern Lights Shopping Center, Columbus, Ohio

The Cussins & Fearn Company was a chain of stores that sold a wide variety of items including hardware, housewares, plumbing and heating, automotive, appliances, farm supplies, furniture and many other hardlines products. The store format was similar to that of Gambles Stores. The Company was founded in 1893 by Charles D. Cussins and William A. Fearn. By 1947, the chain had 30 stores and 44 stores at its peak, all of which were company owned and located in Ohio. Cussins and Fearn Stores were eventually phased out and replaced by Buckeye Mart discount department stores.

Discount Department Stores

Gamble-Skogmo operated discount department stores under various nameplates throughout the United States. Gamble-Skogmo operated Rasco-Tempo discount department stores in Western states (operated by the Rasco Variety Stores Division), Tempo Discount Department Stores in Midwestern and Great Plains states and Buckeye Mart stores in Ohio (operated by the Cussins & Fearn Co. Division). The Tempo and Buckeye Mart divisions were later merged to become the Tempo-Buckeye Stores division based in Minneapolis and Columbus, Ohio. Tempo and Buckeye Mart stores in Ohio and Michigan were sold to Fisher's Big Wheel in the late 1970s, with the remaining Tempo stores transferred to the F. S. Rasco & Co. variety store division.[8] The remaining Tempo stores were closed in the early 1980s following the bankruptcy of parent company Wickes.

Gamble-Skogmo also owned a 49% interest in Clark's Gamble Corporation, which operated Clark's Discount Department Stores in the United States and Canada. In 1968, Clark's-Gamble Corporation and its stores in the United States were purchased by discount store operator Cook United, Inc., based in Cleveland, Ohio. Gambles retained ownership of Clark's-Gamble of Canada Limited, the operating unit for Clark's stores in Canada.[9]

In 1978, Gamble-Skogmo purchased the Howard Brothers Discount Stores chain, also known as Howards' Brandiscount, based in Monroe, Louisiana.

ToolArchives Research

We begin to see Gambles Auto Supply Co. in 1918, in the South Dakota "Report to the Auditor."  We also see them consistently through the late teens and early twenty's suggesting the company was formed well before Wikipedia reports above.  However, we do find an article in the 6/8/1927 edition of The Brainerd Daily Dispatch (Brainerd, MN) which reports 18 current locations in North and South Dakota, Wisconsin and Minnesota.  The article reports the first store opening on March 21, 1925 in St. Cloud, MN.  The first stores were opened by the owners Bert Gamble and Phil Skogmo.  In 1928, they incorporated all their stores as Gamble-Skogmo and the stores to Gamble's Stores.  Up until 1928, store owners were allowed to purchase their own stock.  Once incorporated, Gamble and Skogmo consolidated purchasing and standardized inventory.  They pioneered the practice of showing merchandise via "open display counters" which is thought to be one of the major factors in their rapid growth.  In 1933, they came up with the idea of "agency stores."  This process allowed filling stations and the like to become associated with the Gamble's brand.  By 1940, there were 1600 agency stores, 249 headquarter stores, and 14 warehouses across the nation.  In April of 1955, The Albuquerque Journal reports that Western Auto has taken over 140 Gamble's stores in 7 western states for $10M.

A newspaper advertisement from August, 1927 promotes the sale of Hinsdale tools at Gamble's stores.  The ad offers set G20 "Master Socket Wrench Set" and the No. 12B.R. set, consisting of a ratchet, el handle, extension and 9 sockets, all hex drive and in a small trapezoid shaped metal container with "sliding" lid.

In 1928,

Items of Interest to the Tool Collector World - Found during other research.

This sections is specifically for collecting those interesting items we discover while researching other topics.

Here is a link to a very interesting book on English & American Tool Makers, published in 1916.  If you're looking for older (18th & 19th century) history on hand tools, this is a good read.

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War Department Announcement ordering the "discontinuation of production" of certain tools/wrenches due to War conservation. From "Machinery, Volume 25, 1918

Image 2 Description: 

Key Drop Forging Tool-Maker Research

Please be advised that this, along with all other "Research" Blogs are just that, research notes.  The items listed here are documented "as found" and therefore may or may not appear in chronological order.

Moore Drop Forge - Image 1 below comes from the Railroad Gazette, October 19, 1900 announcing the formation of the Moore Drop Forge in Springfield, Mass.  "Preliminary" Officers and investors identified are:

  • H. E. Marsh - President
  • A. L. Moore - Treasurer
  • F. S. Sibley - Secretary
  • T. W. Leete - (Prominent investor / corporate officer)
  • C. T. Sean
  • G. M. Hendee - (known for cycling, cycle racing and cycle safety inventions)

There are indications that Mr. Moore came from another company, having served as Treasurer of the Springfield Drop Forging Co.  The Springfield Drop Forging Co. appears to have formed in July of 1895 and our research indicates that it lasted until around 1911.  Final disposition is still unknown.

September of 1922 - A. H. Chapin President

In the 4/18/1928 edition of the Altoona Tribune, an announcement appears noting the acquisition of controlling interest in the Continental Railway Supply Company by Moore Drop Forge.

In the book entitled "Springfield, Volume 2," the following key dates are reported:

  • 1900 - The MDF company began making Bicycle frames;
  • 1909 - MDF began producing wrenches;
  • 1914 - MDF got into automotive forging and machining;
  • 1938 - MDF began making tools for Sears;
  • 1946 - Purchased the Wason Car Works plant;
  • 12/1967 - The Eastern Stainless Steel Co. purchased 95% of MDF stock;
  • 1969 - Eastern Stainless Steel Co. restructures as the EASCO Corp.;
  • 1985 - EASCO taken over by Equity Group Holdings;
  • 1987 - Company goes public
  • 6/1990 - Merged with Danaher Co.

In July of 1960, MDF broke ground for their new plant in Hillsboro, OH.

Billings & Spencer sold it's drop forging operation to Moore Drop Forge effective January 2, 1963.

Page-Storms Drop Forge Co. - The November 29, 1900 issue of Iron Age indicates Page-Storms purchased the Overman Wheel Company's former plant in Chicopee.

In 1895, John F. Fitzgerald is awarded a patent (531,628) for an adjustable wrench and assigns 1/2 ownership to Frank Storms.

In 1902, Page-Storms is identified as manufacturer, under the catagories of: Drop Forgings and Bicycle Forgings.

This article from June 25, 1903 announces the acquisition of Springfield Forge by Page-Storms.

Page-Storms incorporation was chartered on July 8, 1903.

The September 3, 1903 edition of The Iron Age reports the Page-Storms Drop Forging Co. is adding a new line of wrenches to their product line.  New lines (at Page-Storms) are Construction, Angle and "Wolf Jaw" wrenches.  The article also notes that Page-Storms is the successor to Springfield Drop Forge, indicating they purchased the company.  The article notes that Springfield will also expand their wrench line with: Single and Double End Engineers' and Set Screw Wrenches, Tool Post Wrenches, Chuck Wrenches, S Wrenches and Milling Machine Wrenches.

1904 Page-Storms "New Catalog" announcement including new lines of wrenches.

The December 20, 1906 edition of The Iron Trade Review announced a new building being erected in Chicopee, which appears to consolidate the operations of Page-Storm and Springfield Forges.

December 14, 1914, Mr. Page passes.

The 1922 Moody's Manual reports that Westinghouse purchased the Page-Storms plant of Chicopee in 1915.  There appears to be significant interaction between Page-Storms and Westinghouse, and the next two references provide evidence of the acquisition of Page-Storms by Westinghouse.  Note that this reference indicates the purchase of the building only by Westinghouse.  This article, reporting on the establishment of the Storms Drop Forging Co., mentions that Page-Storms was in fact sold to New England Westinghouse Co..  And finally, this article from Moody's confirms that in August of 1915, Westinghouse did indeed purchase Page-Storms.

Page-Storms was purchased by Moore Drop Forge in 1919, according to Moody's.  Note also that it appears a significant portion of the stock purchased in order to acquire Page-Storms was acquired from Westinghouse.  (Scroll down when reading the link)

An interesting article from the 6/26/1922 St. Louis Post-Dispatch records a brief history of the Winchester company.  It reports that in 1919, Winchester formed a "holding company" to acquire companies to occupy the various plants constructed in New Haven, CT during WWI.  Among the list of companies is "the wrench business of Page-Storms Drop Forge."

Storms Drop Forging Co. - In 1920, Frank F. Storms (of Page-Storms) starts the Storms Drop Forge Co. as President & Mngr, and Charles H. Leonard as Treasurer, as reported by the New England Business Directory.  Note that the November 23, 1923 edition of Iron Age reports Frank O. Wells as Treasurer.  There is also a J. H. Jones mentioned in other articles.  Frank Storms brother Albert was also a part owner.

Here is an exceptional article detailing the layout of the plant, capitalization, officers etc. from the April 15, 1920 edition of The Iron Age.  When clicking the link, scroll up for the article beginning.  Officers include:

  • Frank F. Storms - President & GM
  • Charles H. Leonard - Treasurer (former treasurer of Page-Storms)
  • Albert J. Storms - Superintendent
  • Frank S. Titchener - Board Member (of Union Forge Company, Union, NY)
    • 1909 - President of Union Forging Co. (Est. 1883 / Incorp'd 1899)
  • George A. MacDonald - Board Member (President - Chicopee National Bank)
  • Capt. Ralph E. Whittle - Board Member
    • 1926 - Secretary
    • 1928 - Purchasing Agent
  • John Porter - Board Member
  • F. O. Wells
    • 1926 - Treasurer


From "IW: The Management Magazine" in 1924, it appears Frank F. Storms was involved in the formation of the The Shur-Lift Auto Jack Company, along with Alvin L. Johnson and Ralph E. Whittle.  Raoul Carpentier and Percy B. Cowell were also involved in the venture.  The company is still listed in the Mass. Business Directory in 1926 but no further reference can be found past that time.

Interstate Drop Forge (IDF) (Milwaukee) - This announcement comes from the March, 1920 edition of The Automotive Manufacturer and relates the details of the formation of Interstate Drop Forge at 2000 27th St., Milwaukee.  The officers are identified as:

  • William C. Frye - President / Director (President of The Chain Belt Co. and Secretary of Sivyer Steel Casting Co.)
  • Major S. M. McFedries - VP & GM / Director (Former Sales Manager of the Cutler-Hammer Ordinance Department)
  • C. R. Messinger - Treasurer / Director (VP & GM of the Chain Belt Co. and Sivyer Steel Casting Co. // Later Chairman of Oliver Farm Equipment Co.)
  • Edgar L. Wood - Director
  • B. Fleeger - Director
  • J. L. Olmstead - Director (Electric Steel of Chicago)

The 1921 Wisconsin State Gazetteer lists the IDF address as 27th & Lake, and the following management staff for IDF:

  • C. R. Messinger - President
  • S. M. McFedries - VP
  • B. F. Fleeger = Secretary
  • C. E. Stone - Treasurer

The October, 1922 edition of Steel Processing & Conversion reports that Mr. Robert C. Yates has resigned from Union Drop Forge to become GM of Interstate Drop Forge.  The blurb also notes the close alliance of IDF with the Chain Belt Co., Sivyer Steel and the Federal Malleable Company, all of Milwaukee.

An interesting article in the 1 June 1930 edition of The Capital Times (Madison, WI) Notes C. R. Messinger as holding the following positions at that time:

  • President - Chain Belt Company
  • Chairman of the Board - Sivyer Steel Casting Co.
  • Director - First Wisconsin National Bank
  • Director - Badger Meter Manufacturing Co.
  • Director - Milwaukee Gas Light Co.
  • Director - Interstate Drop Forge Co.
  • Director - Federal Malleable Co.
  • Director - The Stearns Conveyor Co. (Cleveland)
  • Director - Monarch Fire Insurance Co. (Cleveland)

In a 1928 article in The Earth Mover, the following management positions are enumerated:

  • Charles. E. Stone - President (The article states he was elected VP in 1924 and currently succeeding C. R. Messinger)
  • Lamar S. Peregoy - VP
  • C. C. Bremer - Treasurer
  • J. C. Merker - Secretary

A 1929 article in The Lumberman announces the IDF Board of Directors.  New to the board is Mr. W. H. Brand (VP of the First Wisconsin Co.).  Mentioned as "re-elected members" are:

  • Edgar L. Wood
  • William C. Frye
  • C. R. Messinger
  • W. J. Nugent
  • Clifford F. Messinger
  • L. S. Peregoy
  • C. E. Stone

By 1930, the IDF address was 4051 N. 27th St. Milwaukee.

The May 6, 1961 edition of The Michigan Alumnus identifies Mr. Charles W. Stone as President of IDF.

At some point before 1980, IDF established the Interstate Southwest Drop Forge Co. in Navasota, TX.  It is currently unknown whether this was expansion through acquisition or internal.

A 1991 issue of Merger and Acquisition Sourcebook reports a planned acquisition of IDF by Christiana Cos. has been terminated.

Right around the year 2000, IDF changes it's name to Interstate Forging Industries, Inc. 

In a 2002 edition of Business World, Interstate Forging Industries announced the closing of it's Milwaukee forging facilities.

Harris-Thomas Drop Forging Company - This forge is being added due to the recent discovery that as a minimum, Cornwell used them for some of their forgings.  Image 2 below presents the announcement of formation and the forge mark of H-T. 

This No. 55 1/2" Drive Female Cornwell Ratchet bears the HT forge mark of Harris-Thomas.  The company was founded on 11/11/1924 in Dayton, OH by G. Ernest Harris, Laura M. Thomas, S. Foster Harris, Charles H. Thomas and Grace Thomas.  The company took over the facilities of the National Drop Forge Co.  Harris-Thomas is still in business today and still located in Dayton, OH.

Western Forge

Western Forge was founded by Mr. C. William Schlosser in April of 1966 in Colorado Springs, CO with an address of 4607 Rusina Dr., Pikes Peak Industrial Park.  An article from a local newspaper in February of 1969 notes that Schlosser first announced his plans for the company in 1965 and had been the President of 4 publically traded tool companies.  A newspaper article from February, 1967 notes their primary products as torque wrenches, wheel and gear pullers, and flaring tools.  The article notes 45 employees at the end of 1966.  Additionally, the article reports that the company has expanded it's factory and throughout 1967 will be extending it's product line with punches, chisels and screwdrivers.  Along with Mr. Schlosser, Mr. Ralph Martin left Lectrolite to start the company in the role of Manufacturing Manager.  2 years later Mr. Martin was named Vice President of Western Forge.  After immigrating from Oslo, Norway in 1927, Mr. Martin worked for the J. P. Danielson company for almost 20 years.  In 1946, Mr. Martin was hired as the Lectrolite Plant Assistant Superintendent and was eventually promoted to Superintendent.

On 20 July, 1969 a local newspaper reports that Western Forge has been awarded the Sears "Symbol of Excellence" award given to outstanding suppliers of Sears merchandise.  Unfortunately, the article does not note the individual products supplied.

The February 14, 1971 edition of the Colorado Springs Gazzette-Telegraph reports that 1970 was a year of extensive expansion for Western Forge.  The article notes the following expansion programs:

  • In June of 1970, the company began shipping it's first adjustable wrenches;
  • In July of 1970, their first shipments of socket wrenches and socket wrench sets began leaving the factory;
  • During 1971, the factory will begin shipment of slip joint and solid joint pliers.

Keystone Drop Forge Works

The Keystone Drop Forge Works was established in April of 1899 in Chester, PA (Philadelphia).  The principals at founding were:

  • Archibald R. Dewey
  • John P. Crozer
  • Francis E. Weston
  • William G. Neilson
  • Jerome Keeley

By 1902, the company is listed as manufacturers of the following products, including wrenches:

  • Bicycle Forgings
  • Bronze Forgings
  • Manganese-Bronze Forgings
  • Machine Handles
  • Cant Hooks
  • Hoist and Crane Hooks
  • Car Coupling Links and Pins
  • Chain Repair Links
  • Thumb Nuts
  • Iron Rosettes
  • Chain Swivels
  • Coal Breaker Teeth
  • Thresher Machine Teeth
  • Electrical Trolley Materials
  • Drop Forged Wrenches
  • Comutator Bars

The company appears to have survived until at least 1949 and may have moved to Easton, PA around 1921.

Image 2: 

Lesser Known Tool Companies

Vanadium Tool Co. (Athens, Ohio) & Affiliated

Here is the link to the Ohio Business Site and the filing for Vanadium Tool Co. on 6/16/1969.  The record shows a status of "Merged out of existance" on 12/29/1986.

Advertisements for salesmen begin to appear in newspapers in 1947.

The earliest HW Retailers magazine we can find Vanadium Tool Co. listed in is 1949, where they are listed under chisels, punches and wrenches.  In the '51 edition they also appear under screwdrivers.

There is an interesting article in the 11/29/1962 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal noting the formation of the Mecto Corp. in order to manufacture mechanics tools.  The article states that the President will be Wendell Fryer and Eugene Workman will serve as Secretary/Treasurer and GM, and Verne Gessner as Sales Dir.  It also states that Mssrs. Fryer and Workman have been directors of the Vanadium Tool Co. for 17 years.  This dates the Vanadium Tool Co. to at least 1945.  The article also notes that Mecto has absorbed the Hicraft Tool Co. and it's factory in Greenfield, OH to begin manufacturing, noting also that Hicraft was an auger bit manufacturer.  Further research on Hicraft reveals that in January of 1952 the company was sold to J. D. McFarland, a Hamilton, OH automobile dealer.  A 1958 edition of Hardware Retailer notes that Hicraft was producers of punches, chisels, screwdrivers, prick and drift punches, along with other small tool items.

Mr. Workman's obituary states he owned Vanadium Tool Co. and Mecto Corp.

Mr. Fryer's Obituary.

We have been able to place Mssrs. Workman and Fryer as residing in Sabina, OH up until late 1944 when they begin showing up with addresses in Athens, OH.  At this point we can make the assumption that the 2 owners likely came from Mechanics Tool & Forge (MAC).

The June 30, 1945 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal reports that Mr. F. H. Bennett and daughters will be moving to Athens due to his interest in the Vanadium Tool Co.  This is the first mention of Mr. Bennett and any affilliation with the company and we have yet to discover any further information.

This report from the State of Ohio (1948) suggests the incorporation of the Hicraft Tool Co. in Greenfield, OH.  Interestingly, the officers are noted as: Mr. William A. Harmon, Wendell F. Fryer, E. A. Workman, and J. S. S. Riley.

Mr. Harmon's Obituary also notes his founding of the Vanadium Tool Company.

The 1/24/1952 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal reports that the Hicraft Tool Co. has been sold to J. D. McFarland, a Hamilton, OH automobile dealer and that the management and employees will remain the same.

The 4/16/1963 edition of The Press-Gazette of Hillsboro, OH notes that the Mecto, Inc. (reporting Mecto = "Mechanics Tool Co") has been approved to receive a grant in order to build a new factory.  It also reports the company will make pliers, wrenches and screwdrivers as a minimum.

An article from the 10/7/1969 edition of The Press-Gazette announces the acquisition of Mecto by K-D Manufacturing and includes a nice historical review of K-D.

This obituary for Mr. Alexander Turner Topping notes that Mr. Topping purchased the Vanadium Tool Co. (along with 2 associates) in 1969 from Mr. William Harmon (see above note on the incorporation of Hicraft).  The article further notes Mr. Topping sold Vanadium Tool Co. to Cornwell in the 1980's, probably late 1986 when it dissolved.

UPDATE Vanadium Tool Co. Acquisition: We have discovered (thanks to a tip from a local Ohio resident) an article in the November 1, 1974 edition of The Messenger newspaper (requires free account to access link) of Athens, OH announcing the sale of Vanadium Tool Co. to Cornwell on October 30, 1974.  The article goes on to note that VTC has been producing wrenches for Cornwell for a number of years and will continue to produce wrenches, punches, and chisels under the Vanadium name and expand it's production of Vanadium and Cornwell items.  The article further notes that Mr. Topping will continue as President and that he purchased VTC from Mr. Harmon in 1969.  The article also notes that VTC was founded by Mr. Harmon, his father and three other unnamed men in 1945.

The accouncement of Mr. Topping's purchase is also carried in The Messenger of June 22, 1969 (free account needed to access link).  The article notes that Mr. Topping was VP of Sales for SK-Wayne, a subsidiary of Dresser at the time.  It further states that Mr. Topping had been Sales and Plant Manager of SK - Lectrolite in Defiance.  The article further notes the other investors: John H. Melcher, Jr.; Thomas J. McCann, Jr.; H. Clark Harvey, Jr.  This article also notes that the Harmon family owned VTC outright since 1962.

In an article in The Messenger from July 23, 1972, it is revealed that VTC also makes tools for labels such as S-K and Craftsman.  The article goes on to note that they will be producing 700,000 punches for "a large tool maker" this year (1972).  Interestingly, and somewhat comical, Mr. Topping notes that "if he were approached by a large corporation seeking to take over his operation, he would not accept the offer."  This is just 2 years before selling the company to Cornwell.

Rhode Island Tool Company

This text is from the Rhode Island Historical Society, which posesses an impressive library of company documents in it's holdings:

 The Providence Tool Company was the outgrowth of the business ventures of two brothers. In 1834, Joseph and Jeremiah Arnold began manufacturing nuts and washers in Pawtucket. When Joseph retired, Jeremiah joined William Field, named their business William Field & Co., and moved to Providence in 1846. In April 1847 the name was changed to the Providence Tool Company.

            The company is known for its ammunition production. However, in its early years, it primarily made hammers, pick axes, marlinspikes, nuts, and bolts. In 1856 it merged with the Providence Forge and Nut Company. The Providence Tool Company was successful in supplying machine parts and tools across the nation.

            The Civil War created a demand for companies to make munitions for the Union army. The Providence Tool Company took up the call and began weapons manufacturing in 1861. The Company hired Frederick W. Howe, a former supervisor at the Robbins and Lawrence Armory in Windsor, Vermont, to help start the manufacturing of arms.

            During the 1860 and 1870s the company continued to produce hardware and machinery. The business expanded so much that in 1867 it opened an office in New York and London. In 1869 the London office closed and when the company encountered difficulty in 1875, the New York office closed as well. In 1873, it received a contract from Singer Sewing Machines to make sewing machines and made machines under other brand names.

            From 1872 to 1875, the Providence Tool Company obtained arms contracts with the Turkish government. These contracts helped finance the company's expansion from 148 West River St. to additional plants at 41 and 95 Wickenden St. By the turn of the century the Tool Company had produced 850,000 firearms. The Turkish government did not pay for the arms produced by the 1873 and 1875 contracts. The company became involved with legal battles and lost money on interest and defaulted loans. Finally in 1885 the company reorganized as the Rhode Island Tool Company, which still exists in 1999.

Our research indicates that while still operating as the Rhode Island Tool Co., The concern was acquired by L. S. Starrett in 1963.

Allen-Differbaugh Co.

The Allen- Differbaugh Co was likely formed as a reorganization of the Allen C. Allen Co. which was likely formed around 1914 in Morris, IL.  The Allen-Differbaugh was likely reorganized as the Kant-Slip Plier & Wrench Co. sometime in the early 1920's.  Here is the patent for the Kant-Slip wrench, submitted by Allen C. Allen and assigned to the Allen-Differbaugh Wrench & Tool Works.  In 1932, "Allen C. Allen" assigned a patent for pliers to the new company.  Here's a link to all patents by Mr. Allen.

From the 1921 Edition of The Automobile Trade Directory:

"Lesser Known" Wrench Makers (Nut & Bolt Wrench Maker Listing):

  • Allan & Co.; Morris, IL
  • American Pulley Co.; 4200 Wissahicken Ave., Philadelphia, PA
  • Armand Machine Works; 442-50 N. Wells St., Chicago, IL
  • Arrow Tool Co.; Buffalo, NY
    • Incorporated 11/12/1919 by:
      • R. J. Mackenzie
      • K. B. MacDonald
      • J. E. MacArthur
  • Art Metal Works (Ronson Wrenches) Aronson Sq., Newark, NJ
    • Appears to begin appearing in 1886 in Philadelphia, PA, under a Mr. Wiler.
  • Atco Wrench Co.; 127 E. Spring St., Lima, OH
  • Bergman Tool Mfg. Co.; 1573-75 Niagra St. Buffalo, NY
    • Begins showing up in publications in 1918, believed to possibly still be in business.
  • Bornstein & Co.; Ipawich, MA
  • Braunsdorf-Mueller; 205 Madison St., Elizabeth, NJ
    • Mentioned as early as 1900 in Iron Age, ad for punches and chisels.
  • Buffum Tool Co.; Madison, MO
  • C. M. B. Wrench Co.; Garwood, NJ
  • Caldwell Tool Mfg. Co.; 87 Warren St. New York, NY
  • Central Brass & Fixture Co.; (Buckeye Wrench) Segler & Hughes Sts., Springfield, OH
  • Chicago Mfg. & Distributing Co.; 411 S. San-Gamon St., Chicago, IL
  • Code Mfg. Co.; Chicago, IL
  • Cushman Co Inc.; Champaign, IL
  • Diamond Jay Dee Co.; 1400 Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL
  • Edelmann & Co.; ('Sexto-Rench' & 'Han-d") 3638 Crawford Ave., Chicago, IL
    • First appears in 1912
  • Efficiency Device Corp.; 198 8th St. Long Island City, NY
  • Efficient Vise & Wrench Co.; 4207 Clark Ave., Cleveland, OH
  • Erie Tool Works; 11th & French Sts., Erie, PA
    • Begins showing up in 1910, Frank Bacon is President in 1912
  • Evans Mfg. Co.; 620-22 E. 63rd St., Chicago, IL
  • Faw, J. H.; ("Fawsco") 27 Warren St., New York, NY
  • Gogle Hand-Forged Tool Co.; 1941 Polk St., San Francisco, CA
  • Gray-Heath Co.; 1440 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL
    • Begin showing up in publications in 1917 with B. L. Gray as President.
  • Guernsey, C. C.; Derry, NH
  • Guthard Co., Egar C.; ("Billmont") 361 E. Ohio St., Chicago, IL
    • Begin to appear in publications in 1917.  Makers of the Billmont Wrench (socketry).
  • Harris & Reed Mfg. Co.; 1510-22 W. 15th St., Chicago, IL
    • Earliest publication found is 1911
  • Helwig Mfg. Co.; Seventh & Locust Sts., St. Paul, MN
    • Earliest publication found is 1902
  • Hergl Mfg. Co.; Bridgeport, CN
  • Hjorth & Co., Wm.; 28 Taylor St., Jamestown, NY
    • Earliest publication found is 1905
  • Holley Tool Mfg. Co.; 1011 S. 12th St., Omaha, NE
  • Ketler-Elliott Co.; 3153 S. California Ave., Chicago, IL
  • Kilborn & Bishop Co.; ("Saxon") Chapel & Lloyd Sts., New Haven CN
  • King Pressed Steel & Mfg. Co.; 13 Hawthorne St., Newton, MA
    • The Iron Trade Review - Volume 66 reports the incorporation of the company.  Principals are Joseph F. King, Amato Pescoselido, Rocco Sementilli
  • Kokomo Wrench Co.; Kokomo, IN
  • L & L Mfg. Co.; 184 High St., Newark, NJ
  • Lamson & Sessions Co.; 3188 Scranton Rd., Cleveland, OH
    • Mainly reported as a nut and bolt manufacturer and still in business today, here is a lind to their History Page for more information.
  • Larco Wrench & Mfg. Corp.; 7800 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL
    • Earliest mention is in 1918, likely beginning in Detroit.
  • Larson Tool & Stamping Co.; Attleboro, MA
  • Lawrence Mfg. Co., F. K.; ("Easy-Way") 615-618 First National Bank Bldg., Chicago, IL
  • Lowell Wrench Co.; 54 Commercial St., Worcester, MA
  • Lutz Co.; Morris-Banbrey & Moore Sts., Philadelphia, PA
  • McKaig Drop Forge Co.; 14 Perry St., Buffalo, NY
  • Martin & Co., Edward; ("Perfection") 33 S. Clinton St., Chicago, IL
  • Marvel Accessories Mfg. Co.; 1220 W. 6th St., Cleveland, OH
  • Mayer Auto Specialty Co.; ("Masco") 452-54 Ellicott Sq., Buffalo, NY
  • Mayhew Steel Products; 291 Broadway, New York, NY
  • Michigan Motor Specialties Co.; ("Becco") 120 Mt. Elliott Ave., Detroit, MI
  • Miller Tool & Mfg. Co.; 1725 16th St., Detroit, MI
  • Miller Wrench Co.; 1054-56 S. Clinton St., Syracuse, NY
  • Motor Parts Co.; ("All-Purpose") Ambridge, PA
  • National Jack & Mfg. Co.; 130-34 S. Clinton Ave., Chicago, IL
  • New England Forge Co.; 9 Plymouth St., Worcester, MA
  • Niagra Falls Metal Stamping Works; ("Pokitrenchis") 335-47 Tenth St., Niagra Falls, NY
  • Peerless Wrench Co.; 98 Sprague St., Providence, RI
  • Quaker Tool Co.; 120 W. Venango St., Philadelphia, PA
  • Red Chief Mfg. Co.; ("L. G.") Louisville, KY
  • Republic Auto Parts Co.; ("Humbolt" & "Sterling") 81-85 Tenth St., Long Island City, NY
  • Robinson Co., M. W.; ("Carll") 296 Broadway, New York, NY
  • S & I Co.; 55-57 Governor St., Springfield, MA
  • Scholler Mfg. Co.; 147 Leslie St., Buffalo, NY
  • Sedgely, R. F.; ("Hexall") 3311-13 N. 16th St., Philadelphia, PA
  • Shaw Propeller Co.; 574 Cambridge St., Allston, MA
  • Smith & Co., H. D.: ("Perfect Handle") Plantsville, CN
  • Smith & Hemenway; ("Red Devil") 130 Colt St., Irvington, NJ
    • Excellent article from Iron Age here.
    • Formed in 1895 by Mr. Landon P. Smith as Smith, Herlitz & Co., reorganized as Smith & Patterson in 1896 and finally as Smith & Hamenway in 1898 with J. F. Hemenway as Sec/Treas.  Major Mfg. representative of Utica Drop Forge.
    • The company "succeeded" (purchased/acquired):
      • Smith & Patterson
      • Maltby Henley Co.
      • Bindley Automatic Wrench Co.
      • Anderberg Importing Co.
      • John Byrnes (Glass Cutters)
      • Also organized the Shatz Hardware Mfg. Co (Mt. Carmel, CN)
    • Appear to have succumbed to the depression around 1936
  • Stadeker Metal Specialty Co.; ("Radco") 110 S. Canal St., Chicago, IL
  • Staff Bros. Co.; 1765 Broadway, New York, NY
  • Standard Tool Co.: 6900-34 Central Ave., Cleveland, OH
    • Incorporated and increased capital on 1/27/1917
  • Star Manufacturing Co.; Carpentersville, IL
  • Unique Tool Co.; 180 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL
  • Wakefield, C. E.: ("Wizard") 89 Exchange St., Worcester, MA

Mechanics Tool & Forge (MAC) Research

Please be advised that this, along with all other "Research" Blogs are just that, research notes.  It is not yet known if the discoveries here have any affilliation with the eventual Mechanics Tool and Forge.

(UPDATE) 5/30/2017 - The 7/15/1938 edition of The Cincinatti Inquirer carries the announcement of formation of the Mechanics Tool & Forge Company.  Officers noted are O. N. Tucker (We've found Mr. Tucker managed a service station for at least the prior decade), H. E. Pendry, R. W. McPherson, and Lawrence R. Lyons.

(UPDATED, see below)  Based on our research thus far, we have yet to determine the source of the name "MAC."  However, since MAC and Clinton didn't merge until 1963, we are inclined to believe that, similar to "MAC-Huff," MAC is derived from the name of Mr. R. W. McPherson.  Additional evidence is the fact that the trademark for the MAC name claims a First Use date of 1/1/1939, making it a term in use well before the formation of Clinton Tool.  The first use claimed for the trademark on the MAC logo is July of 1945.  See our notes from 3/23/2016 below, confirming our determination of the origin of the MAC name.

McPherson-Huff Tool Co. - Founded by Mr. Elmer T McPherson and others.  The 15 September, 1925 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal announces the departure of Mr. McPherson from the Greenlee Bros. Auger Bit. Co. as plant superintendent.  Prior engagements include superintendent at the Irwin Auger Bit Co. (1915-1918).  The 11/11/1913 edition of Motor World Wholesaler names McPherson as a co-incorporator of the Wilmington Auto Co.  The 12 May, 1926 edition of the Cincinnatti Inquirer names E. T. McPherson as a co-founder of the Car-Van Steel Products Company in Canton, OH.  On August 8, 1916, McPherson was awarded a patent (assigned to Irwin) for a cutting device, Patent #1,193,578.  On Jan 25, 1921, McPherson was awarded a patent for a die for making Bit Stock Tools, Patent #1,366,815.  On May 30, 1922, McPherson was awarded a patent for an auger bit design, Patent #1,417,760. Here are all patents we can find for inventions by Mr. McPherson.

The formation of the company is announced in the 3/28/1927 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal.  The brief article states the new company will produce screwdrivers, pliers, wrenches, nail pullers and similar tools.  In a 19 May, 1928 article from the Wilmington News-Journal, the "incorporation" of the company is announced.  The article notes the date of incorporation as 17 May, 1928.  Please note that we have found earlier references to McPherson-Huff (1927) but this is the incorporation timeframe.  Initial capital was $30,000 and the officers are noted as:

  • R. W. Allen
  • W. L. Huff
  • E. T. McPherson
  • Russell Allen

The 16 March, 1929 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal announces a merger between McPherson-Huff Tool Works and the Brown Tool Works of PA.  Operations are to be headquartered out of Sabina.  O. A. Brown, J. C. L. Brown and V. R. Atkins started the Brown Co. in Tidioute, PA on 8/8/1928 to manufacture cutlery, along with their own line of hand tools.  The August 14, 1942 edition of the Cincinatti Inquirer reports that the Brown Tool Works employs 110 workers presently.

For Mechanics Tool & Forge I found (officers at founding):
O. N. Tucker, H. E. Pendry, R. W. McPherson, Lawrence Lyons

For Clinton Tool Co. (officers at founding):
G. E. Waddell, R. W. McPherson, O. N. Tucker, Sanford A Hadley

While the MAC website - History Page claims Clem Poole was the impetus for the founding of Clinton, we have found no evidence of this.  Mr. Poole is mentioned as a "Department Head" in December of 1945, and finally in 1954, mentioned in news articles of the period as President of Clinton Tool Co.  UPDATE: 6/16/2016 - We have found a patent linking Clem Poole to Wright Tool & Forge.  Patent #2368069 for "Procedure & Equipment for Forging or Forming Articles" was applied for in 1943 and awarded and assigned to Wright Tool & Forge in 1945.  The inventors are Arthur Stone, a well known inventor for Wright, and Clement Poole.

Other stuff I found
McPherson - Huff Tool Co., "Established" 12/16/1937 in Sabina  (See above, this is a confusing announcement;  perhaps "re-established?")
William E. Huff, R. W. Allen, E. T. McPherson, Russell L Allen - Later (1965) President of Sabina Bank.

R. W. McPherson Tool Co. Wilmington, OH
Found records back to 1948, "manufacturers of: Hand Tools (except Edge Tools, Machine Tools, Files, Saws)"  The 03/06/1948 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal reports the incorporation and specifically mentions they will make screwdrivers.  This piece of information matches up nicely with events of the day.  In June of 1948, Mechanics Tool & Forge was awarded the patent for a screwdriver handle (Otto Tucker), just after the formation of R. W. McPherson, increasing the likelihood that they were formed to finance the addition of screwdrivers to the MAC tool lineup.  The incorporators are R. W. McPherson, L. L. Lundy and Richard M. Lundy.  We have found indications that the Lundy and McPherson families were related (L. L. Lundy's grandmother was Mrs. Nina McPherson).


The 2 September, 1967 edition of the Washington C H Herald contains an article announcing the retirement of Otto Tucker (seen in Image 1 below) from MAC Tools.  In the article, Mr. Tucker reminisces about the history of the company noting how, in 1938, he and Ralph McPherson decided it was "now or never" to begin their foray into the tool making world.  Mr. Tucker recalls the two of them "working alone in a 50' x 60' garage, hammering out sets of 5 combination wrenches."  He relates the story of the fire at McPherson-Huff and how they "procured all of the in-process tools, cleaned them up and re-tempered them and began selling the MAC-Huff line, that gave the company its name of MAC Tools."  They also obtained the McPherson-Huff sales force "of some 20-21 salesmen."  Mr. Tucker also notes a recapitalization in 1943, and "the formation of the Clinton Tool Company in 1944 to underwrite the addition of sockets to the manufactured line."  Lastly, Mr. Tucker addresses the formation of "MAC Allied Parts, Corp. an associate company at Akron in 1944, to job out any part of the line not manufactured at Sabina."

2/25/2016 - According to an article in the Washington C H Herald from July 22, 1973, the following is the history of Mechanics Tool & Forge:

The company was founded on July 11, 1938 with the following officers and investors:

  • R. W. McPherson - President (Buried 09/02/1949)
  • G. W. Martin - Treasurer
  • O. N. Tucker - Secretary
  • H. E. Pendry
  • Lawrence Lyons
  • R. E. Cantrill
  • H. W. Harcum

The article states that manufacturing operations began in October of 1938.  Mechanics Tool & Forge leveraged the sales force of the Mac-Huff Tool Co. to sell wrenches along with the punches and chisels produced by Mac-Huff.

In 1940, Mac-Huff suffered damage from a fire and salvageable tools were purchased by Mechanics Tool & Forge, along with the Mac-Huff Sales force, including Mr. G. E. Waddell, who soon became President of Mechanics Tool & Forge and later VP of MAC Allied.  Mr. Gaylord E. Waddell passed away on July 24, 1968.  The Mac-Huff fire is reported in the Jan 5, 1940 edition of the Washington C.H. Record-Herald.  The herald reports the loss of 120 jobs, 1,200 boxes of new tools, and losses estimated at $100,000.  4 of the 6 buildings in the complex were destroyed.  Mr. E. T. McPherson sold all his possessions at a farm auction in 1944, and again in 1949.  His funeral was announced in the 27 August, 1954 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal.  According to the article, Mechanics Tool & Forge was boosted in 1942 by a contract with the AF to produce 72,000 wrenches.  The proceeds from the AF contract were used to purchase the garage they had been operating out of and begin construction on a new building. 

A December, 1941 news article announces an earlier contract for "special wrenches" for the Army Air Corps in the amount of $46,650.  This article also notes that the company only had 6 employees in 1940, but by the time of this article, they were at 15 and building an addition with new equipment and expecting to employ between 20 and 25 once completed.  This article also identifies Ralph McPherson as President of the company.  Other officers noted are O. N. Tucker, Elmo Cantrill and G. E. Waddell (notes he worked for Mac-Huff for the past 12 years).

In 1944, a second company, Clinton Tool Co. (same officers as Mechanics Tool & Forge) was formed to manufacture sockets.

Other significant events and dates from the article:

  • 1942 - First catalog issued
  • 1946 - MAC Allied Formed
  • 1961 - Mechanics Tool & Forge becomes MAC Tools;
  • 1963 - Clinton Tool Co. and MAC merge;
  • 1969 - MAC acquires Mac-Huff Tool Co.

The Ohio Labor statistics report for 1939 reports Mechanics Tool & Forge with 3 employees.

The June 22, 1973 edition of the Washington C. H. Record-Herald contains a 4 page article welcoming MAC Tools to Washington C. H., after having purchased the former plant of the National Cash Register Co..  The article presents an excellent tour of the new plant, the managers of the respective divisions, and demonstrates that at the very least, in 1973 MAC had wrench and socket manufacturing facilities.  The article identifies the following officers of the company:

  • Paul W. Elrod - President (Joined MAC in 1948 as a distributor, became sales manager, VP Sales, and finally President in 1968)
  • John Petty - VP Manufacturing (Former Manager of McPherson-Huff Tool Co., joined MAC ca. 1969)
  • T. R. Sizer - VP Marketing / Assistant General Manager (Joined MAC in 1962, EVP in 1969)
  • Edward A. Huwaldt - Board Member (EVP Huntington Bank Shares, Inc.)
  • Lawrence R. Lyons - Board Member
  • James G. Townsley - Board Member (General Superintendent Armco Steel Corp.)
  • George G. Wilcox - Board Member (Retired VP / GM of the Tool Division of New Britain Machine Co.)
  • Charles O. Moore - Secretary / Treasurer
  • Phillip Brewer - Director of Industrial Relations and General Superintendent (Non-Officer, reporting to Petty)

Here is a patent  for a screwdriver handle.  Assigned to Mechanics Tool & Forge, invented by Otto Tucker.  The timing of the patent and the formation of The McPherson Tool Co. to produce screwdrivers is certainly an interesting "coincidence."

The 6 April, 1976 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal reported that on Monday, 5 April the heat treating area of the Sabina plant caught fire.  The fire was contained to the heat treating division and losses were identified as 1200 gallons of oil.

MAC celebrates 1,000th Distributor - 31, May, 1975 Washington C. H. Record-Herald

The 28 Feb., 1957 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal has an article identifying Gail (Gaylord E.) Waddell as President of Mechanics Tool & Forge, and notes MAC Allied, a "part" of Mechanics Tool & Forge was started in Tallmadge, OH.

The April 29, 1967 edition of the Wilmington News-Journal reports the election of new directors and officers for MAC Tools Inc.

New Directors Elected:

  • Harry Holiday Jr. - Director of Raw Materials for Armco Steel Corp.;
  • Edward A. Huwaldt - EVP Huntington National Bank;
  • Lawrance R. Lyons - Attorney

Reelected Directors:

  • Paul W. Elrod
  • C. E. Poole
  • G. E. Waddell


  • G. E. Waddell - President
  • Paul W. Elrod - VP
  • C. O. Moore - Sec. / Treasurer

Lawsuit Against MAC Tools.

In 1967, a machinist was using a punch, sold to the business by Sears.  The punch splintered and the gentleman was blinded by the incident.  In 1968, the gentleman sued Sears, Roebuck & Co. for damages.  In 1969, Sears further sued McPherson-Huff as the manufacturer/supplier of the defective tool.  We believe this provides evidence of the "N-Square" marked tools sold by Sears Roebuck.  It is interesting to note that Sears also named Mr. John O'laughlin Jr., a banker and investor from Chicago, Mr. Otto P. Froeschl, of Wilde Tool in Kansas City, and John and Jane Petty of Sabina in their lawsuit.  A newspaper article from the Wilmington News-Journal in December of 1970 states that Mr. John O'lauphlin Jr. was President of McPherson-Huff and Mr. and Mrs. Petty were officers.  At this point we have no answer to why Otto Froeschl would be named in this action.

Article announcing the MATCO tool box plant dedication -- Russ Darrah short bibliography.


Image Description: 

Mr. Otto Tucker, at his retirement in 1967 at the age of 79.


Milwaukee and The Tool Industry

This blog / notes page was started as a result of the complicated and convoluted nature of the early tool industry in Milwaukee.  Spawned as a result of research on early Milwaukee Tool & Forge, this page will attempt to capture all our notes on related principals and events.

Milwaukee Tool & Forge

First, let us start with the formation of Milwaukee Tool & Forge Company as related in the September 27, 1917 issue of Iron Age.  The principals of this enterprise were reported as George F. Phillips, R.L. Wheeler, and George Haubert.  These three gentlemen, along with others, will be the focus of the research contained in the next few paragraphs.

In 1911, Mssrs Wheeler and Phillips started the Ideal Laundry Co., located at "1520 24 Wells St., Milwaukee."  Wheeler - President // Phillips - Sec. / Treasurer.  The state of Wisconsin industry report for 1911 reported 57 employees.  The 1919 Wisconsin Gazetteer lists the company at 1524 Wells in Milwaukee.  We have not yet resolved the duration of Mssrs Wheeler & Phillips' involvement with the company.

In March of 1916, Mr. Haubert started the Crary Tool Co., and located the company at 220 Becher St. in South Milwaukee.  The April 8, 1916 edition of The American Artisan notes that they purchased all equipment and rights to the Crary Process Company of Minneapolis and moved the business to Milwaukee.  This article also notes that they will make cold chisels, punches and caulking tools.  Aside from Mr. Haubert, principals in the company included:

  • Mr. John Hoerl
  • Mr. William C. Garent
  • Mr. George E. Garent

The stated business of the Crary Tool Co. was the manufacture of "Chisels, Pliers, Wrenches and similar back tools."

At the same time, the above gentlemen (Haubert, Hoerl and both Garents) started The Badger Auto Body Co. to produce car and auto vehicle bodies and trim.  Motor Age.

Although we don't know if it's connected, or the same George Haubert, the May 23, 1906 edition of Horseless Age reports George Haubert as incorporator of The Vehicle Top & Supply Co. in St. Louis.

In the December, 1917 Issue of the Iron Trade Review, it is reported that Mr. Haubert (noted as President of the Crary Tool Co.) has established The Modern Steel Treating Co.  Other principals in the company include:

  • 1917 - Mr. C. Walker. Esau
  • 1917 - Mr. Adam J. Eimermann (Note: 1921 Gazetteer lists him as a Lawyer // killed by a hit & run motorist on 6/11/29)
  • 1921 - Mr. C. Walker. Esau - President
  • 1921 - Mr. J. J. Geary - Vice President
  • 1921 - Mr. J. J. Bonham - Sec.
  • 1921 - Mr. W. J. Schrank - Treas.

The stated business of The Modern Steel Treating Co. is the heat treatment and annealing of steel.  "It will be involved in heat-treating metals by a new process evolved by Mr. Haubert."  Addresses discovered are:

  • 1918 - 453 38th Avenue
  • 1921 - 38th & Lapham
  • 1922 - 617 38th Avenue (Note the MTF address 1 door away)

Mr. C. W. Esau has also been found as the President of the Esau-Kroening Construction Co. of Milwaukee, founded in 1912.  Other principals included R. H. and Amelia Kroening.

After 1922, the Modern Steel Treating Co. can no longer be found in any directories or publications.

On 10/25/1917, it was reported that Milwaukee Tool & Forge acquired The Crary Tool Co. and plans to extensively enlarge the facility.

In the 12/19/1918 edition of the Iron Trade Review, it was reported that the facilities of the Milwaukee Tool & Forge Co. were completely destroyed by a fire on 10/17/1918.  The rebuild was listed at 619 38th Ave.  At this point it is interesting to point out that the Modern Steel Treating Co. and MTF are located at 617 and 619 38th Ave respectively.  Given their locations, the fact that Modern Steel Treating Co. disappears in 1922, it is plausible they became part of MTF and moved along with them to South Milwaukee in late 1922.  Another hint to this merger is MTF begins to appear in Steel Treating and Processing publications in 1923.

The January, 1922 edition of Mill Supplies announces that the Milwaukee Tool & Forge Co. has increased it's capital stock and will be moving to South Milwaukee. 

We have also discovered possible evidence of Milwaukee Tool and Forge in the form of "Milwaukee Tool and Forge of New England."  The 1927 edition of Acts and Resolves Passed by the General Court of Massechussettes lists the Milwaukee Tool and Forge of New England being dissolved.  This may or may not have been a sales entity for the East Coast.

In 1932, Milwaukee Tool & Forge merged with several other companies to form the Lectrolite Corp. in Defiance, OH.  Please see our research "Sherman Klove & Affiliated" for more details.

Husky Wrench Company

The January 2, 1924 edition of The Capital Times of Madison, Wisconsin reports the new corporation of the Husky Wrench Company.  Principals named are:

  • Joseph O. Wirtish
  • Siegmund Mandl
  • Oscar Engerson

According to a short article in a 1924 edition of Automotive Industries, Mandl lures the manager of the Snap-On Company, Joseph Wirtish, away and, along with Oscar W. Engerson and John Zummach, they form the Husky Wrench Co.  According to the trademark for "Husky Wrenches and Husky Socket-Wrench Sets," Mandl claims first use on January 29, 1924.

The announcement reads:  "The Husky Wrench Co. of Milwaukee has been organized by a number of men formerly with the Snap-On Wrench Co. of that city to engage in the line of manufacturing mechanics' tools, especially for garage and repairshop use and for original car kit equipment.  Joseph O. Whirtish, formerly manager of the Snap-On Company, and Sigmund Mandl, and Oscar Engerson are the principals in the company."

On February 9, 1924, Sigmund filed an application for the trademark "Husky" underline and the registration was issued on July 22, 1924. The application lists the company address as 1610 Vliet Street in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  An interesting note is until December 21, 1923, the 1610 Vliet address is used by the Suran Jewelry store.  The address is still used by Mr. and Mrs. Phillip Suran until at least 1930.  By 1927, Husky was listed at the address of 27th & Florence in Milwaukee.

Effective January 1, 1929, Husky is sold to Olsen Manufacturing and moved to Kenosha.  Publications of the day make it clear that Mr. Zumach left as President almost immediately, and we believe Mr. Mandl made the move to Blackhawk at about this time as well.  By December of 1931, Mandl was filing patents with Pfauser for Blackhawk.

We have recently uncovered an advertisement in the 25 October, 1934 edition of the Racine Journal-Times, and again in the December 7th and 8th editions, announcing the entire contents of the Kenosha Husky Wrench factory are to be sold on the following weekends respectively.  This could indicate a timeline for the purchase of Husky by New Britain, which has previously been unknown.  The next time Husky shows up in any advertisement / publication is in an advertisement dated 3 January, 1941 as a brand being sold by Ceramic Auto Supply in Ohio, and subsequently the July 22, 1943 edition of Hardware Age, which shows an address for Husky in New Britain, CT.

The December 2, 1976 edition of The Wisconsin Jewish Chronical published Sigmund Mandl's obituary, having passed away on November 18, 1976 from complications following surgery.

Modern Day Research

Here is a link to The Hand Tool Institute which lists modern day tool makers (mostly USA manufacturers), their products and sources.

Apex Tool Group

Link to Apex website listing brands currently under their umbrella.

Dresser Industries

Brands, Trade Names & Trademarks

  • Dresser (Wrenches) (First Use 1905 "by applicant and its predecessors")

Ideal Industries

Link to Ideal website listing brands currently under their umbrella.

Triangle Tool

In the summer of 1967, Frederic Malek (the famed political consultant), along with a couple other partner investors, purchased the Utica Tool Co. from Kelsey-Hayes for $9M.  Warren L. Batts also attended Harvard Business with Malek, co-founded Triangle, and was President & CEO of Triangle Corp. from it's founding in 1967 until early 1973.  While not specified in this rather lengthy article from The Journal News (White Plains, NY) of 1/14/1971, the sale of Utica to Malek and Batts in 1967 included all companies under the Kelsey-Hayes Tool division umbrella.  Within a year, Malek renamed Utica to Triangle Corp.  The article explains that beginning in 1968, the partners set out to take over the tool manufacturing world and consolidate it under Triangle Corp.  In April of '68 they bought The Century Tool Co. of Philadelphia, Park Manufacturing and J. E. Industrial Moulding Inc. of Chicago in August, and in December of '68 they went public and acquired Torque Controls Inc. of Los Angeles.  Malek left the company in April of 1969 to begin his career in the Federal Government.

In July of 1977, Vermont American tendered an offer to buy out Triangle Corp. but stockholders later rejected the offer.

We found evidence of Triangle Corp. purchasing Diamond in 1981.

In 1983, Cooper Industries took over all tool manufacturing interests of Triangle Corp.  The disposition of Triangle after 1983 is unknown.

Crescent Niagara

In 1960, a group of investors acquired the Crescent Tool Co. and reorganized as the Crescent Niagra group.  This 12/22/1960 article lays out the acquisition as related by Marvin L. Peterson, President of Crescent Tool Co.

On 26 September, 1962, the plans to acquire the hand tool business (only) of Billings and Spencer is announced.  Related, Billings & Spencer sold it's drop forging operation to Moore Drop Forge effective January 2, 1963.

The Preservation Ready website reports that in 1963, Mr. Barcalo passed away at the age of 93 and the hand tool division of Barcalo Manufacturing was sold to Crescent Niagara.  The sale is reported in this 1963 edition of Industry Week.

In October of 1968, Crescent Niagara was acquired by Cooper Industries.

Cooper Industries

On March 19, 1929, the merger of the Bessemer Gas Engine Co. and the C. & G. Cooper Co. is announced.  The new company became Cooper-Bessemer.  This event sets off an acquisition spree the likes of which the tool world has never seen before.  They did not focus on tool manufacturers only and while we will list what we find, we will highlight and focus on the tool industry.

Quick Resources:

On 12/10/1965, Cooper-Bessemer was renamed to Cooper Industries.

Cooper Industries Acquisitions:

  • Ken-Tool - 7/27/66
  • Lufkin - 10/30/67
  • Waukesha Motor Co. - 7/26/67
  • Crescent - Niagra (which included Barcalo, Crescent, and Billings) - 10/68
  • Rotor Tool Co.
  • Ajax Iron Works
  • PA Pump Compressor Co.
  • Weller Electric Corp - 12/24/69
  • Dallas Airmotive - 6/17/70
  • Nicholson File 10/30/72
  • White Superior Division of White Motor - 6/6/76
  • J Wiss & Sons - 10/6/76
  • Danco
  • Gardner-Denver - 1/23/79
  • Advance Controls
  • Crouse-Hinds - 11/27/80
  • Kirsch Co. - 12/80
  • Westinghouse (indoor lighting business arm) - 10/1/82
  • McGraw-Edison - 6/4/84
  • Joy Technologies (Molded rubber products division) 9/87
  • Moog Automotive Group - 9/92
  • Joy Technologies (Industrial Compressor Division) - 12/87
  • Dubilier Industries (England) - 3/88
  • RTE Corp. - 5/88
  • Champion Spark Plugs Co. - 2/89
  • Dual-Lite Inc. 9/89
  • Rockwell (Industrial Tools Division) - 5/90
  • Wagner Brake
  • Wagner Lighting
  • Hawker Fusegear Group (England) 7/93
  • Triangle Tool (Including Utica, Erem, Diamond, and Bonney) - 8/83

Sales by Cooper Industries:

  • Ken-Tool to Warren Tool Corp - 4/2/74
  • Cooper Airmotive - 12/81
  • Onan Corp. to Cummins Engine Co. - 1/86
  • Funk Engineering to Deere & Co. - 5/89
  • Sharon Manufacturing to Walbro Corp. - 2/90

Plomb/Proto Research

Interesting Plomb Notes

Immigration records show Alphonse Plomb immigrating from France (born in 1871) in 1899 in Illinois.  In addition, a 1907 listing of "Tool Makers" in Chicago lists an A. Plomb at 77-83 W. Lake.

In 1910, voter registration records from Los Angeles, CA show Alphonse Plomb as a "Tool Manufacturer" at 1658 Long Beach Ave.  Subsequent voter registration records from 1936 and 1944 show he and his son Henry J. Plomb listed as Tool Makers.

In the 1910 LA City Directory, Alphonse Plomb is listed as a tool maker located at 1658 Long Beach Ave.  In 1913 and 1914, he is listed under Tool Manufacturers and located at 7674 1/2 Male Ave.

The first time Plomb Tool is listed as a company in the LA City Directories is 1916.  In this directory, Jacob Weninger is listed separately as a tool maker, William Ziegler Jr. is listed as manager, and Alphonse Plomb is not in the directory.  Charles H. Williams doesn't show up associated with Plomb Tool until 1917.  He appears to be Secretary for Eucalyptus Hardware Association prior to 1917.

A 1909 edition of The Pacific Miner announces Mr. F. A. Kohler as having taken over the Plomb Tool Works of Los Angeles.

The 5/25/1928 edition of The Wilmington News-Journal (Wilmington, DE) announces articles of incorporation for The Plomb Tool Company offer capital stock of $500,000.  Incorporators are listed as A. L. Miller, T. L. Fray, and A. V. Lane, all of Wilmington, DE.  (Corporation Trust Co. of America)

In December of 1932, the News Journal (Wilmington, DE) reports that the Plomb Tool Company has officially voted to reduce it's capital by $120,000.  The article does not indicate the amount of remaining Operating Capital.  The article does however note that C. H. Williams is company President, and H. L. McConnell is Secretary.

On Jacob Weninger's 1942 Draft Registration, he is listed as a tool maker for California Tool Co.

In the Los Angeles City Directory for 1909, Jacob Weninger is listed as a Wire Worker.  In 1913, he is listed as a tool maker.  In 1916, he is listed as a tool maker, but separate from Plomb.  In 1917 he is listed with Plomb Tool Mfg. Co.  In 1918, he is listed as Foreman.  By 1920, he is simply listed as a tool maker.  In 1923, he is listed as Foreman of Plomb.  In 1925, 1926, and 1928 he is still Foreman.  In 1934, Weninger is listed as Superintendent at Plomb. 

In an announcement, only partially discernible on-line in American Aviation, Volume 6 (1942), Page 38, there is mention that Plomb Tool Company "has organized facilities of 27 companies....." -- This article refers to the Plomb Contracting Company, organized as Fleet in '42, then changed to Penens in '43 as the management / organization arm set up to manage very large war production contracts and their many sub-contractors.

Plomb "Creates" Fleet - Throughout the war years, we find many references to Plomb "contracting" between 27 and 31 factories to produce wartime tools (see above note).  They all reference a "Plomb Tool Contracting Company."  According to recently discoverd information, it appears that neither Penens nor Fleet was in fact an acquistion.  Rather, it is evident by this court ruling that Plomb incorporated Fleet as the "Plomb Tool Contracting Company" in 1942, renamed it to Penens Corporation on September 8, 1943, and to Penens Tool Corporation on February 26, 1956.  On November 26, 1963, the name was again changed to Fleet Tool Corporation.

J. P. Danielson - Pre-Plomb

This biography on Albin Joseph Carlson from the History of Chautauqua County New York and it's People, by John Phillips Downs, published 1921, notes that Mr. Carlson teamed up with J. P. Danielson to start the company.  It also mentioned that he had been working 8 years for the Peterson Crest Tool Co. in Jamestown.  We have found no evidence yet but the possibility remains that this company could be related to Karl Peterson, given their eventual apparent takeover of the J. P. Danielson Co. in 1907.  Mr. Carlson passed away in 1918.  The biography notes that his wife retained his interest in the company (Crescent Tool Co. - See Below).

Thus far, this is the earliest reference we have been able to locate on J. P. Danielson & Co.  From The Iron Age, December 3, 1903.


The December 10, 1907 edition of Hardware reports that the J. P. Danielson company has been dissoved, having been taken over by Crescent Tool Company Inc.  This is confusing based on the below information, as well as this report from Domestic Engineering and the Journal of Mechanical Contracting, Volume 49 - October 2, 1909.  However, we find the notice regarding the formation of Crescent, and it's taking over of J. P. Danielson in multiple publications in 1907.  This example, from The American Exporter - October, 1907, names Mr. Karl Peterson as the President of the newly established Crescent Tool Co.  This announcement from Steel and Iron - July 8, 1907, identifies the following officers of the newly incorporated ($30,000 capital stock) Crescent Tool Co.:

  • Karl Peterson
  • Albin Karlson (Note: see above biographical reference, and note spelling of last name)
  • Charles F. Falldin
  • John E. Anderson
  • Charles S. Grover

This article from a 1909 edition of Motor Cyclopaidia notes Karl Peterson as President and C. F. Falldine as Secretary and Treasurer of Crescent Tool Co.  It also notes the establishment date as 1902 and capital investment of $20,000.

An interesting aside is that Karl Peterson filed this patent for a pipe wrench on 10/09/02, whose assignee was the William Hjorth and Company, another plier manufacturer in Jamestown.  The Canadian patent is #88,521, filed on February 4, 1904.


The August and September, 1913 issues of The Iron Age both report that the J. P. Danielson Co. is nearing completion on construction of their new factory.


The July 1st, 1917 The Plumbers Trade Journal announces the publication of Catalog #5, consisting of pliers and wrenches recently published by the J. P. Danielson Co.

The February 13, 1921 edition of The Plumber's Trade Journal shows a nice advertisement and mentions Catalog #6.


Unsure of it's significance or meaning, it appears Mssrs. Danielson and Carlson knew each other before immigrating from Sweden based on this snippet from the Minutes of the Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church from 1912.  From the information that can be gleaned from search results, it appears Mr. Danielson was a Methodist preacher.


In the May 13, 1920 edition of Iron Age, the announcement of the incorporation of J. P. Danielson is announced.  Capital stock of $300,000.  Officers include:

  • J. P. Danielson
  • K. Tornebohn
  • A. Swanson

In 1923, Mr. A Swanson filed a patent for a turn signal.

Cragin - Pre Plomb

In the Jan. - June edition, 1929 Iron Trade Review, this announcement establishes the incorporation of the Cragin Tool Company of Chicago at 5720 Armitage Ave.  Readers are advised that 5720 Armitage Ave. is extremely close to 2120 N Menard, located where the two streets intersect.  Principals are:

  • Russel Greenacre
  • I Lieberman
  • B. I. McCormick

By 1938, Cragin Tool Co. no longer occupies the aforementioned address, claimed by the W. R. Brown Corp., makers of spray painting equipment.

In the 1939 Illinois State Certified List of Domestic Corporations, the Cragin Tool Company is listed at 2120 N. Menard in Chicago.  It is interesting to note here that the entry above lists the "Cragin Building Corp." at 2649 N. Kildare.  Most readers should immediately recognize this address as the home of Indestro and Duro at the same time.

Yet another interesting note is that the MacLean-Fogg Lock Nut Co. also used the 2649 N. Kildare Ave. address from at least 1928 to at least 1937.  We will explore this curious conglomeration of companies at 2649 N. Kildare further in the Indestro/Duro Research Blog.

In attempting to pinpoint the Plomb/Cragin tie, we noticed that in the 1941 Mergent Moody's Industrial Guide, George Pepperdine (Western Auto // Brother Ben ran Cragin/Bog) is listed as one of the Directors of Plomb Tool Co.

In an announcement, only partially discernible on-line in American Aviation, Volume 6 (1942), Page 38, there is mention that Plomb Tool Company "has organized facilities of 27 companies....." -- This article refers to the Plomb Contracting Company, organized as Fleet in '42, then changed to Penens in '43 as the management / organization arm set up to manage very large war production contracts and their many sub-contractors.

In the May 8, 1949 edition of The San Bernardino County Sun newspaper, a lengthy article was published about a local company, Allen & Son Iron Works.  In the article the writer notes that the company supplies "cold chisels and drills to the nationally advertised Plomb Tool Company."  Mr. Jack G. Allen, grandson of the founder of Allen & Son, served as VP for Plomb Tool Co. from 1947-1952, when he took a position as VP at Bingham-Herbrand.  In 1958, he would accept the VP position of his grandfather's Allen & Son company, where he became president in 1963. 

On 4/23/1955, Alphonse Plomb passes away.

The 1962 edition of Walker's Manual of Far Western Corporations & Securities notes that Pendelton Tool Industries manufactures and produces tools sold under the following brands:

  • Proto
  • P & C
  • Challenger
  • Fleet
  • Duplex
  • Vlchek

Please take note of the absence of Penens in the above list.

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American Aviation, Volume 6 (1942), Page 38

Image 2 Description: 

I am also attempting to discover Plomb/Proto revenue steams through time. This is their '52/'53 Revenue report.

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Quality Tools Corp / Old Forge Research

The Quality Tools Corporation was founded in very early 1924 in New Wilmington, PA as reported in Volume 10 of Steel Processing & Conversion.  They will manufacturer Chisels and hand tools.  The 1924 Volume 113 of Iron Age also reports the formation of the company and notes the company will produce pneumatic chisels, bending tools and rivet punches.  It also notes that the company will "handle" a full line of mechanics tools, indicating they will not be the manufacturer, but a broker for mechanics tools.  This notion is confirmed in the Shurtleff and Lawton Families: Genealogy and History (Thorsen Story) where QTC is identified and the East Coast Distributor for Thorsen Tools.  The Iron Age article also notes a D. C. McChiston will head the company. (we believe this to be a mispelling of Mr. McQuiston below)

Officers included in the Steel Processing & Conversion announcement are:

  • James A. McLaughry - President (Son of J A McLaughry, a PA Judge)
  • Ralph. R. Miller - V. P. (Former head of sales for Curtis Publishing)
  • D. H. McQuiston - Secretary & Treasurer (possibly a professor at Wesleyan)
  • William McLaughry - Director (James' brother)
  • William B. McCrory - Director (Pittsburgh Lawyer // Formerly Co-Founder of the American Salvage Co. in Pittsburgh [1912] // Formerly Co-Founder of the Exothermic Steel Co. in Pittsburgh [1912] // Assignee [10%] for a Conveying Apparatus patent [1924])

On October 14 of 1924, The Quality Tools Corporation was granted a trademark to the term "Old Forge" in reference to various hand tools.  The first use is reported as January 4, 1924.

In a want ad in the June 1928 edition of Popular Mechanics, just 4 years after founding, Quality Tool Corp. states that the prospect will sell a "guaranteed line of 120 Old Forge tools including wrenches, pliers, screwdrivers, chisels, punches and tool boxes."

The 2/25/1936 edition of the New Castle News reports that the dies for Old Forge tools are manufactured by The Lockley Company.

The 1/7/1966 edition of the New Castle News reports that the Quality Tools Corp. has been acquired by Dowley Manufacturing Co. of Spring Harbor, MI.  Mr. William J. Dowley will be President and Mr. McLaughry will be VP.  Dowley was formed in 1957 and also manufactures tools.  Note that the QTC employee count is reported as 20 in this article.

1969 Patent for a Wheel / Gear Puller assigned to Dowley Manafacturing and invented by Mr. Robert Kelso.

Here is another patent assigned to Dowley and invented by Mr. Kelso for an Oil Filter Remover filed in 1970.

Lloyd R. Eason for a Harmonic Balancer Installer in 1982Flaring Tool in 1983.

Todd Combs et al. filed for a patent for a Front Wheel Drive Hub Puller in 1990.  This puller was referred to as the "Hub Shark" with the trademark here.  However, after a lawsuit, the trademark was abandoned.


Sherman Klove & Affiliated Research

We found this biography for Mr. John Beitner Pagin showing that he was with the Sherman-Klove Company during the years 1916-1917.  This would indicate that the company formed earlier than their license date referenced below.  In addition, advertisements for screw machine operators begin to appear in August, 1918.

1/1/1919 Edition of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Yearbook lists Mason Sherman as V.P. of The Sherman Klove Company of 4519 W. Harrison St. AND 121 Eighth Avenue, La Grange, Ill. It also appears to list him as a member of the society since 1902. Link

The Society of Automotive Engineers also lists the Sherman-Klove Company (4519 address) as members in their July 1919 Edition.

The Biennial Report of the Secretary of State of the State of Illinois lists The Sherman-Klove Company as having $100,000 in capital stock as of their filing date of August 31, 1916. This report covers the time period of 1 January 1914 to 1 January 1916.  Roger Klove - President; Mason Sherman - VP; Noah G. Klove - VP and Treasurer - Died 1932 in Mayo Clinic after an operation.

January, 1921, still listed in the Automobile Trade Directory as strictly a Screw Machine Product Company.

A snippet from the 1927 "Iron Age" publication notes that: "The Sherman-Klove Co., Chicago, maker of milled nuts, will build a factory to cover 34,000 sq. ft. at 3531 West Forty-seventh Street." Note that not a single publication up through 1930 lists the company as anything other than a Machine Screw company. I have yet to find a single mention of any wrench, socket, or any other tool.

When reviewing the S-K trademark certificate, the claimed first use in commerce is December of 1932, in reference to sockets, wrenches, etc.  1933 appears to be the first mention I can find of any "tools" by S-K. However, the content / statement leads me to believe they were producing tools prior to this time. Since the snippet notes that "the quotations on wrench sets are advanced somewhat," there most certainly must have been prior price lists. Research continues! Quote from snippet of Hardware Age - 1933 Edition: 1933 - ‎"New price lists on socket wrench sets, steel tool and tackle boxes, effective October 1st, have been issued by the Sherman-Klove Company, Chicago. Quotations on wrench sets are advanced somewhat, but are now figured f.o.b. cars at ..."

A very interesting article in the January 25, 1947 edition of the Washington C. H. Herald notes the donation of land to the city of Defiance, OH by Mr. Schlosser for a city park.  The article notes that the donation is reciprocation for citizens of the city contributing to a community chest in the amount of $4320 in September of 1932 which enabled Schlosser to purchase the original factory for Lectrolite.

Hinsdale / S-K

While it has been reported that the Hinsdale company folded around 1929, and that Sherman-Klove bought out their inventory, I am finding Hinsdale advertisements for all kinds of tools throughout 1930 and 1931, and into March, 1932 so far. (Popular Science Magazine predominately). Ok, I'm still seeing Hinsdale advertisements well into the middle 1930's for "Bobcat" socket sets, "Super Bobcat" ratchets, etc. I think we can pretty much debunk the "S-K bought out Hinsdale's inventory" theory. I have found advertisements on a consistent basis throughout the 1930's with no apparent breaks within that range.


Milwaukee Tool and Forge, Lectrolite, S-K and Symington Wayne.

TRU-FIT - It looks like the TRU-FIT name was trademarked by Milwaukee Tool and Forge , filed 8/19/1929 and claiming first and continuous use as of January, 1921.  Lectrolite then trademarks TRU-FIT in 1952, claiming first use in January of 1932.  The trademark specifically mentions that Lectrolite also owns the Milwaukee Tool and Forge trademark previous TRU-FIT trademark, under another registration number.  The late '20s and early 30s timeframe is just about when the Milwaukee Tool and Forge ceases to show up in searches.  Milwaukee Tool and Forge used the TRU-FIT trademark in a snippet from the 1931 Pilots Handbook, under an unknown catagory (probably files) Tru-Fit in a list containing other tool manufacturers such as Mayhew, Millers Falls, Plomb, Truth, Vlchek and Whitaker "Triple Diamond" (Triple Diamond refers to Whitaker files).  There do exist socket tools and wrenches from the 1920's with the TRU-FIT label.  Lectrolite continued to produce tools under the TRU-FIT moniker at least up into 1953.

Lectrolite - In an article published in a 1932 edition of Hardware Age, the "recent formation" of Lectrolite Corp. is announced.  The article explains the formation of the company resulted from a merger of Milwaukee Tool & Forge Co., Saturn Electric Water Heater Corp., Defiance Stamping Co., and Pressed Products Co.

  1. Pressed Products Co. - Began operations on February 1, 1931 producing electrical appliances and hardware.  Employees numbered 26 when operations began and the Operations Manager was R. E. Dalton of Parkersburg, WV.
  2. Defiance Stamping Co. - Established in 1926 with $12,500 investment by C. V. Shepfer, Arnold Havilan, and L. Seelie

Officers of the newly formed Lectrolite Corp. were:

  • President & General Manager - Harold L. Schlosser (Incoming as President of Pressed Products Co.) (another article from Automotive Industries identifies Schlosser resigning his post as the "General Manager of the Napoleon Stamping division of the Monroe Auto Equipment Co.)  Monroe Auto Equipment Co. is the same company we know today for Monroe Shocks.  Monroe was taken over by Tenneco in 1976.  Tenneco also owned Walker (jacks) at the time.
  • Vice-President & Treasurer - J. C. Markey
    • Prior involvement with formation of the Elliott-Markey Co. in 1915 (Defiance, OH) along with H. L. Elliot, R. E. Markey, and B. R. Emery - Horseless Age Link
    • At the time of the formation of Lectrolite, J. C. Markey is referenced repeatedly as the President of the Aro Equipment Corp.  This Hardware Age article also seems to tie Saturn to Aro.  From what we can gather, Aro was principally involved in petroleum product dispensing machines.
  • Secretary - J. W. Davies - Unresolved history.
  • From an article dated 18 September, 1932 in the Cincinnati Inquirer, also mentions Mr. J. A. Otis (VP of Alemite Corp. and Stewart Warner), Mr. W. D. Kyle (President of Milwaukee Tool & Forge), and "C. J." (note J. C. above) Markey (President of Arc Equipment Co.)

In an article in the October 7, 1932 edition of the Oshkosh Daily Northwestern, the move of Milwaukee Tool & Forge to Defiance, OH is announced, citing "the uncertainty of the tax situation and the high taxes now in effect" as the reason for the move.  The Treasurer, identified as Miss Elizabeth M. Siemer, stated current taxes on a wood building in Wisconsin are $1200/yr where taxes in OH on a brick facility are $88/yr.  The article also notes that 75-100 men were employed at the time and manufacturing operations were to be shut down for the move on October 11.

The May 27, 1936 edition of The Sandusky Register reports on a strike of the entire workforce of 40 men and identifies Harold L. Schlosser as plant superintendent.

S-K Lectrolite - The trademark for S-K Lectrolite was filed on 11/23/1953, claiming first use in commerce since June of 1953.  The trademark was filed by Lectrolite Corporation and awarded on 11/22/1955.  This would place tools marked the S-K Lectrolite as being produced between June, 1953 and September / October of 1961, when Symington Wayne acquired Lectrolite.  **NEW NOTE**  See our entry just below announcing the Symington-Wayne acquisition of Lectrolite in or about September of 1961, and Sherman-Klove in April of 1961.

The 1967 edition of MACraes Bluebook lists the Lectrolite Corporation as a subsidiary of Symington Wayne.  The formality of the relationship between S-K and Lectrolite was strictly a "joint agreement / partnership." 

The January 24, 1958 edition of The Evening Independent announces the merger of the Symington-Gould Corp with the Wayne Pump Co. creating the Symington Wayne Corp.  Another article we've found names "Martin & Schwartz" as the predecessor to Wayne Pump.  This article from the April 25, 1958 edition of The Daily Times reports on the first board meeting of the new Symington Wayne Corp.  Officers are noted as:

  • William H. Bateman III - President (8/'39 - Pres - Martin & Schwartz, Inc.)
  • Hynes Sparks - Chairman of the Board (9/'50 - Pres - Symington-Gould Corp.)

The May 1, 1958 edition of the same paper notes the following further officers:

  • Charles Godshall - VP
  • Bruce A. Dean - VP
  • Coates F. Bateman - VP
  • William Thornton - VP
  • N. L. Harms - VP

The September 25, 1961 edition of the Pittsburgh Post Gazzette reports that the Symington-Wayne Company will purchase the Lectrolite Corporation for $3,000,000.

The April 27, 1961 edition of The Daily Times reports that the acquisition of Sherman-Klove by Symington Wayne occurred on April 3, 1961.

This article from the September 22, 1961 edition of The Daily Times confirms that the Lectrolite acquisition will "compliment the products of their subsidiary, The Sherman-Klove Company" in the hand tool business.  Therefore, we can now conclude that there was never an S-K / Lectrolite merger, but simply an operating partnership.

It is interesting to note that we continue to find advertisements for job openings for the Lectrolite Corporation up to April of 1965.  We can assume that for at least that period of time, they continued to operate as Lectrolite.

In the recently acquired 1964 SK-Wayne Catalog, this notice appears inside the rear cover.  It is somewhat vague but definitely states that Symington Wayne purchased SK-Lectrolite.  What is unclear is whether prior to the acqusition, SK and Lectrolite were one in the same company / entity or still operating as a partnership. 

The S-K trademark trail shows the transfer to Symington being requested on 3/23/1964.  The S-K Wayne brand trademark was filed on 4/7/1965, trademarked on 1/24/67 and claimed a first use in commerce date of 5/14/1964.

This brief article in the July 7, 1967 edition of the Bridgeport Post notes the jump in price of Symington Wayne (SW) stock after Dresser Industries makes a tender offer to purchase.  In the subsequent days, the newspapers are ablaze with "jumps in stock price" and news of SW declining the offer, and filing injunctions against Dresser to block a hostile takeover.  The Dresser activity appears to be a move to block a planned merger with the Universal American Corp. of New York.  Here is another article detailing the injunction from The Daily Times.  The planned merger with Universal American Corp. was announced as terminated in October 10, 1967 newspapers.  On April 24, 1968, shareholders from Dresser and SW approved the merger of the two companies.

The December 14, 1967 edition of The Daily Times reports the acquisition of the P. A. Sturtevant Co. (torque wrenches).

The S-K Wayne Trademark was transferred to Dresser Insustries effective August 1 of 1968; SK-Wayne is referred to as a subsidiary of Dresser Industries.  See this 9/1968 Advertisement from Popular Science.

By May of 1970, the "Wayne" portion of the name had disappeared and been relaced by "S-K Tools."

On October 26, 1983 Corcoran Partners, Ltd. bought S-K Hand Tool Corp. from Dresser Industries.

On January 1 of 1985, Facom purchased the S-K Hand Tool Corp. from Corcoran Partners, Ltd.

In 2005 after Stanley acquired Facom, S-K became independent through a management buyout.

In the 1937 edition of The Economist, the "Brazil Stamping Division" of the Sherman-Klove Company are located at 5151 W. (8 or 6)5th street, Clearing Industrial District.

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Tool Manufacturers, Brands and Contract Production

This is a running list of Tool manufacturers, brands, specialized markings and suppliers.  In the near future, we will be converting this into indexed and searchable content enabling users to simply type in a name they find on a tool, and bring up relevant information on suppliers and/or manufacturers, as well as append relevant examples if they exist in our database.  We think this resource could prove invaluable for the tool collector community.  Please use the comment function at the bottom of this page to contribute to this ever-growing list.

A & E Manufacturing (Racine, WI) - Contract Production for:

  • Armstrong (Ratcheting DBE)
  • Craftsman (Ratcheting DBE)
  • Klein (Ratcheting DBE)
  • Snap-On (Ratcheting DBE)
  • OTC (Ratcheting DBE)
  • Williams (Ratcheting DBE)

   Sub-Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

A & E Manufacturing Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

Raymond C. Agner Co. (Burlington, WI) ​ - Incorporated October of 1912 to manufacture the inventions of R. C. Agner, such as the Simplex adjustable spark plug wrench and Simplex grease / oil gun.  Officers at founding are Edward Brook - Pres., Hugh Agner - Sec., George Weiir - Treas., and R. C. Agner - GM.  We did not find a patent for the wrench between 1910 and 1914.  The grease / oil gun was patented in 1909 and plans to build a factory were announced at that time.  Articles of dissolusion were filed 9/18/1920, likely changed their name to the Agner Simplex Company. 

1913 article explaining the Simplex Wrench.

Agner grease cup ca. 1913.

  • Simplex (Adjustable Spark Plug Wrench)
  • Agner (Wrenches)

Raymond Agner Patents

Adjustable Wrench & Specialty Manufacturing Company (Oshkosh, WI) - Incorporated in IL on May 3, 1904 by P. M. Knippenberg, F. W. Hahn and L. J. Husson.  They produced wrenches based on a patent from 5/12/1903.  Mr. Knippengerg is also President of the Knippenberg Manufacturing Company of Oshkosh, which predominately produces products against the patents of Mssrs. Knippenberg and Husson.

Patent #728,007 by William H. Preston - Wrench - Assigned to Knippenberg

Akron Tool Company (Akron, OH) - Formed after acquiring The Sterling Wrench Company assets and patents - 9/18/1889

Directors and Officers elected 2/2/1890: Directors: Geo. W. Crouse, H. M. Hauser, F. Schumacher, F. M. Atterholt.  Officers: Hiram Kendall - Pres., F. M. Atterholt - VP, H. M. Hauser - Sec., Chas. A. Bower - Treas., and W. E. Taft - GM.

2/17/1890 - Taft resigns as GM, Bower takes over GM position.

12/1890 - Manufacturing Wheel and Charging Barrows for Grant McNeil.  8/1892 Mr. McNeil passed away, Akron Tool Co. purchased the rights to the charging barrow and the wheel barrow rights went to the J. C. McNeil Co.

- Also manufacturer of the Krause Cultivator (10/9/1889 article).

- 6/24/1927 - Reincorporated as the Akron Twist Drill Company.

Akron Wrench Company (Akron, OH) - Formed to manufacture J. R. Long patented wrench(s).  Note that this article also documents the production of the John R. Long patented universal double and single swivel vises by Pittsburgh Automatic Vise Co.  Incorporated 8/10/1906 by John R. Long, Walter R. Talbot, William A. Bynder, Oliver A. Sorrick, and Webb William Webb.  Note that just 2 months later the company appears to be being referred to as The J. R. Long Wrench Company.  It appears that this company never actually came to fruition.  The announcement was "forecasting" the pending formation of the company.

Allan-Diffenbaugh Wrench & Tool Works (Baraboo, WI) - Formed by Allen C. Allan and William A. Diffenbaugh, possibly succeeding A. C. Allan & Co.  Articles of incorporation filed 5/6/1920.  Incorporators are Allen C. Allan, Louis M. Allan, and Adolph Andro.  The company initially set up in the Elkington Building in Baraboo. In 1922, the company offered inducements to the town of Appleton, WI in an attempt to relocate their factory.  The success or failure of this effort is unknown.  On October 1, 1922, Lorenz Maisel took over as GM of the company.  He had previously been with the Madison Tool & Stamping Works.  By 1927, they appear to be in bankruptcy.

DATAMP patents for Allen C. Allan

Here is an article from International Steam Engineer from 1921 which includes a picture of the inside of the plant. 

Article from the September 1920 edition of Railway Locomotives & Cars describing the Automatic Wrench. 

Article from October 1920 edition of Commercial America, one of the first for the Kant-Slip Plier / Wrench.

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Kant-Slip (Wrenches) (1920-1923)

The Allen Manufacturing Co. (Hartford, CT) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Allens (Socket Wrenches)

----- Go Here for Company History

Allen Wrench & Tool Co. (Providence, RI) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Allen Eureka (Socket Wrenches, Ratchet) (1916-1922)
  • Allen Friction (Socket Wrenches, Ratchet) (1913-1922)
  • Allen Universal (Ratchet Wrenches & Wrench Sets) (1915-1922)

Allen Wrench & Tool Co. Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

American Blacksmith Company (Buffalo, NY) - Incorporated April, 1901 by W. F. Wendt, N. W. Wendt, and H. J. Kreinheider.  This company also published the American Blacksmith trade journal, a weekly publication that appears to have started publication in 1901. The company appears to fade ca. 1926

American Grinder Mfg. Co. (Milwaukee, WI) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Blackhawk (Wrenches, Socket Wrenches, Ratchets, Sockets)

American Grinder Patents

----- Exhaustive Research Located Here

American Wrench Company (Washington, DC) - Organized 1/16/1905 

American Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Chartered 7/3/1921 (DE) by William W. Johnson, Otto L. Erickson, and Thomas H. Landswick.

American Wrench Company (New York, NY) -​ Incorporated 9/6/1907 by I. J. Mengley, Henry Hasier, and Henry T. Rodman.

American Wrench Company (Portland, ME)  ​- Incorporated 7/9/1880

Bradford F. Lancaster Patent #325,942 - Wrench - Assigned 1/2 to Richard W. Black

Anchor Wrench Company (Milldale, CT) Link to Article

Anderson Ratchet Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Incorporated 3/6/1915 by Anton T. Anderson, William Daniel, and Calvin R. Ocker.  8/15/1915 is the final advertisement found.

The Anderson Wrench Co. (Portland, CT) - The March, 1910 edition of Iron Age reports that the business of the Anderson Coupling Company will split.  The "coupling" business was purchased by interested parties in Hartford, while the plier and wrench business will reorganize as the Anderson Wrench Company.  Incorporation paperwork was filed 3/15/1910.

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Turn-More (Adjustables) 1907-1921) By Simplex Mfg. Co. (New York, NY)

----- As reported in The Metal Worker, Volume 73, this company Incorporated on April 30, 1910.  This company took over the wrench and plier product of the Anderson Coupling Co.  Anderson Coupling Co. also manufactured curb and corporation cocks, couplings and valves, who's production was taken over by the Pratt & Cady Co.  We find records for The Anderson Coupling Co. back to 1899.  The final mention we can find for The Anderson Wrench Co. is in 1922.  In November of 1921, Iron Age Magazine reports the dissolution of the company.

Ariz Wrench Company (Prescott or Jerome?, AZ) - Incorporated 7/13/1903 by E. D. & W. Treadwell, and C. E. Nathhorst. 

Lafayette W. Johnson Patent #717,579 - Pipe Wrench - Assigned to Chas. E. Nathhorst and Chas. W. Woods.

Armstrong Brothers Tool Co. (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Armaloy (Used for almost everything Armstrong Made)
  • Armide (Cutting Tools)
  • Armoil (Cutting Tool Lubricant)

Armstrong Brothers Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

​Armstrong Manufacturing Co. (Bridgeport, CT) - ​Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks​

  • ​Rapid Transit (Pipe)

Art Metal Works (Newark, NJ) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

-------- Leased the Birkenhauer & Bauman "Old Fashioned" brewery building at S. Orange Ave. and Morris Ave. in Newark in January of 1919.  The article states they come from Aronson Square.  Louis V. Aronson - Pres (1935).  Mr. Aronson's obituary (11/3/1940) states he passed at 71 years old and founded the company when he was 16.  Based on this information, the company was founded in 1885. However, many other sources note the founding of the company in the mid 1890's.  They made 50M buttons and other docorations for WWI uniforms.  Inventor of the Ronson lighter, time fuse for air dropped bombs, and many other innovations.  Alexander Harris took over as president after Aronson's passing.  Here's an excellent article on the history of the company.  This article from October, 1949 calls the company "Ronson Art Metal Works."  It also states that they sell some lighters for $5,000, in 1949.  Still in business as Ronson, making lighters.

Art Metal Works Patents

​Ashland Wrench Company (Ashland, OH) - Incorporated 9/18/1911 by Sam Miller and others.  The September 28, 1911 edition of Iron Age announces the company, and adds John Garbrill to the organizer list.  It also states the new wrench is currently made by W. E. Golden of Fremont, OH.  Other publications add J. W. Roth, David L. Mohn, and J. Gordon Fluke to the founders. 

William E. Golden Patent #967,899 - Wrench

The Atha Tool Co. Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Horseshoe (Chisels, Axes, Hammers, Tongs) (1911-1921)

Atha Tool Co. Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

Athol Machine Co. (Athol, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Rapid Transit (Adjustables) (1902-1922)

Athol Machine Co. Patents 

----- Go here for Athol Machine Co. History

Atlas Pipe Wrench Company (San Francisco, CA) - Incorporated 5/27/1899 by Richard O'Connor, Joseph M. O'Brien, Thomas J. Wattson, Hugh Keenan, and Thomas E. Ryan. (Note the incorporators mostly match those of The Hercules Pipe Wrench Co.)  7/1/1900 newspaper article on the Atlas Pipe Wrench.  Another article for the same exhibition of the wrenches notes that their Works are in New Haven, CT. 

Article explaining the wrench from The Metal Worker of August 4, 1900.

Atwater, H. W. (Newark, NJ)  ​- Pipe Wrench

H. W Atwater Patents in DATAMP

Auburn Rex Wrench Company (Auburn, NY) - Incorporated 9/29/1897 by J. C. Schreck, F. A. Van De Water, C. I. Mam, and J. L. Eddy of Auburn, and F. J. Jenny of Utica.  No further articles regarding this company were found.

Augusta Wrench Company (Augusta, ME) - 9/1/1886 - report states they manufacture the patents of "The Spaulding Bros. of Belgrade."  Report also states the Spaulding Bros. make all the wooden wrench handles for the Augusta Wrench Co.  

Article on the Augusta Wrench from Building Age, October, 1887.

Patent #357,869 by Albion K. and Alpheus M. Spaulding - Nut Wrench

- 10/21/1886 article "seems" to indicate forgings are produced by Field & Cranshaw.  Unverified.

- Final mention in newspapers is April, 1887.

Automatic Adjustable Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Organized ca. 10/1904 by Robert E. Petrie (wrench inventor), M. H. Murphy, and Charles A. Gleason.  A year later they are locating at a Cotton Mill at Sears, Rock Island, IL.  This appears to be the final mention of the company.  We were also unable to locate the purported Petrie patent.

Automatic Transmission Co. (Lima, OH) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Any Angle (Adjustables) (1919-1922)

----- Mostly due to the company name, we have not found any directly attributable information on this company.

Automatic Wrench Company (Newark, NJ) - Chartered 9/26/1921 by Frank Smith, Mary McAndrew, and John McAndrew.  Final mention appears to be April, 1924.

Automatic Wrench Manufacturing Co. (Boston, MA) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Barnsley (Adjustables) 1915-1920)

------Founded (or incorporated) last week of February, 1915 by Thomas A Barnard, Edward A. Barnard, and Mildred E. Grover

Azadian Gauge Mfg. Co. (Syracuse, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Auto King (Wrenches) (1913-1917)

----- We have not been able to find the formation date of this company.  However, this bibliography, published in 1906, provides a biography of it's founder Harutun B. Azadian.  In 1916, The Heating & Ventilating Magazine reports the company was merged into Syracuse Faucet & Valve Co.  At some point before 1920, the aforementioned companies were purchased by the Pierce Mfg. Corp.

Ball Bearing Wrench Company (Washington, DC) - Incorporated 8/25/1904 by Charles B. Talbert, George W. Coldenstroth, and Louis P. Keller.  Mentioned in newspapers back to 2/1897 in New York.  Final mention in newspapers is their incorporation notice.

Barcalo Manufacturing Co. (Buffalo, NY) - Contract Production for:

  • Montgomery Ward-Eclipse
  • None Better (New Britain) (Wrenches)
  • Powr-Kraft
  • Wards-Lakeside
  • Western Auto Stores

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Barcaloy (1947-1964)
  • Barcalo-Buffalo (1914 - ??)
  • King Dick (Wrenches) (1920-1922)

Key Tool Stamping Terms (stamped/forged into tools):

  • Forged Chrome - Molybdenum
  • Chrome Molybdenum
  • Forged Vanadium
  • Chrome Vanadium Steel
  • Forged - Barcaloy - Steel
  • Forged - Alloy

Barcalo Mfg. Co. Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

Barnes Tool Co. (New Haven, CT)

  • Barnes (Wrenches)

------According to, the company was founded by Elbridge F. Barnes in 1883.  We have found the obituary for the founder's son, George Francis Barnes who was noted as the President (succeeding his father) of Barnes Tool Co. until at least 1957, two years before his passing.  See below link for more information from Vintage Machinery.

Here is the link to Vintage Machinery's record for this company which includes historical and patent information.

Barwick Wrench Company - ca. 1872 - An advertisement from 1901 notes the "Barwick Wrench" is made by Billings & Spencer.  This advertisement from 1903 notes the same but also contains a picture of the plier/wrench.  Another article on Barwick wrenches from the October, 1872 edition of The Technologist. 

William Henry Barwick Patents:

Baxter Wrench Co. (New York, NY) ca. 185? 

DATAMP Patents for William Baxter

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Diagonal
  • "S"

The Belden Machine Co. (New Haven, CT) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Hayden (Pipe Wrenches)

----- Begins appearing in 1890, seems to disappear around 1923.

Belding Wrench Co. (Brattleboro, VT) ca. 1879

Bell Wrench Company (Tulsa, OK) - Incorporated 7/8/1919 by W. E. Bell, A. B. Nesbitt, and T. D. Brown.

Bemis & Call Hardware & Tool Co. (Springfield, MA) - Contract Production for:

  • Sears - Fulton

  Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • B & C (Wrenches)
  • Briggs (Adjustables)
  • Coes (Adjustables)
  • Key-Model (Adjustables)
  • Knife-Handle (Adjustables)
  • Merrick (Adjustables)
  • Star 91 (Adjustables)

Bemis & Call Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

​Benedict Wrench Co. (Chicago, IL)​ - The May 8, 1913 edition of Iton Age reports the incorporation of the company by Charles E. Freund, William G. Freund, and W. B. Hartman. 

Laurance D. Benedict - Patent #1,063,153 - Pipe Wrench - Assigned to Benedict Wrench Co.

Laurance D. Benedict - Patent #1,143,350 - Pipe Wrench

Bergman Tool Mfg. Co. (Buffalo, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

Bergman Tool Mfg. Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

The Best Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Incorporated 7/13/1897 by Ira B. Tripp, E. C. Hawley, and J. L. Healy.   The company appears to have been a "flash in the pan."

Ira B. Tripp Patent #587,624 - Wrench

Article on "The Best" wrench from The Metal Worker November, 1897

Bettcher Mfg. Co. (Cleveland, OH)

  • Bettcher (Wrenches)

This company was incorporated on 3/12/1901 in Cleveland.  They increased their capital stock 6x in 1914 and doubled it again in 1916.  In August of 1957, Bettcher purchased the Apex Wash-a-Matic line of washing machines from the Apex Electrical Manufacturing Division of White Sewing Machine Corp.  They appeared to manufacture washing machines as their main product.  In 1986, Ralph E. Stinson is President.

The Billings & Spencer Co. (Hartford, CT) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Life-Time
  • B inside Triangle
  • B & S (Adjustable Wrenches, Pliers)
  • Billings Improved (Adjustable Wrenches)
  • Hayden (Pliers - Slip joint combos)
  • Vitalloy

   Contract Production For:

  • Craftsman - Craftsman Vanadium Steel / Chrome-Vanadium (Wrenches)
  • Mack (Wrenches)
  • Draper (Wrenches)

Key Tool Stamping Terms (stamped/forged into tools):

  • Chrome Molybdenum

Billings & Spencer Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

Bindley Automatic Wrench Company (Pittsburgh, PA) - (New York, NY) - Incorporated in NY 1/4/1895 - Incorporators are Josiah Bindley, Frank J. Kimball, and Arthur H. Walton of New York, and Evan Jones and Fred Gamble of Pittsburgh.  Last mentioned in newspapers 12/1899. 

George P. Woelfel - Patent #538,994 - Pipe Wrench - Assigned to Josiah Bindley

​B-L Wrench Company (Boston, MA) ​- We believe the "B-L" stands for Baston - Leavitt.  Organized ca. 1903.  An article appearing in a 1904 edition of Domestic Engineering and the Journal of Mechanical Contracting ​announces the formation of the E. K. Baston Co. to take over the business of the B-L Wrench Company.

The B-L wrench is based on Patent #765,583 by Claude F. Leavitt, and assigned to Ephraim K. Baston on 7/19/1904.

Advertisement from The Plumbers Trade Journal - January 1, 1908.

Article from 1903 explaining the B L Wrench.

Blackhawk Manufacturing (Milwaukee, WI) - Contract Production for:

   Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Wedgie (Metal Bending and Straightening Tools)
  • Flex-Head (Heads for Hydraulic Jacks)
  • Treasure Chest (Tool Kit with Box)
  • HeXo (Wrenches)
  • Hexite (Wrenches, 7/16" drive sockets) (~1937 - 1955)
  • Nuggies (7/16 Drive Tools & Sockets) (~1940-1955)

All Blackhawk Patents

----- Exhaustive Research Located Here

Bog Manufacturing (Chicago, IL) - Contract Production for:

  • Hinsdale
  • Plomb

   Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Big Boy (Wrenches)

----- Go Here for Company History

Boker Cutlery & Hardware Co., Inc (New York, NY) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

Boker Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

Bonney (1876-1909 Philadelphia, PA / 1909-1953 Allentown, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • TUHEX (Wrenches) (9/32 - ??) Comes up in a search here but cannot be located in PTO Databases #340108
  • Bon-E-Con (Wrenches, Ratchets, Sockets) (First Use 1/12/1953)
  • Zenel (Wrenches, Ratchets) (First Use 8/31/1932)
  • Chrome Vanadium (circle CV) (Wrenches, Ratchets, Sockets, Specialty) 2nd CV Logo
  • Bonaloy (Wrenches) (First Use 3/6/1939)
  • Hercules (Vises, Adjustables)
  • Ajax (Vises)
  • Vixen (Alligator Wrenches)
  • Masterpiece (Pipe Wrenches)
  • Always Ready (Alligator Wrenches)
  • Crocodile (Alligator Wrenches)
  • Bonney Stillson (Pipe Wrenches)
  • Gipsey (Vises)
  • Bonney (Arched Letters)
  • Bonney Shield Design (All tools - First Use July 1, 1913)
  • Lehigh (Bonney Shield design with Lehigh) (First Use 12/15/1915) (appears to be mostly masonry tools but trademark also lists wrenches and vises)

   Contract Production for:

  • Crescent Niagara (Ratchets)
  • John Deere (Wrenches, Ratchets, Drive Tools, Sockets)
  • Bethlehem Spark Plug Co. (Ratchets)
  • MATCO (Wrenches)
  • Harley-Davidson
  • Caterpillar
  • Pratt-Whitney
  • Craftsman (C-####-C Wrenches)
  • Dayton (Ratchets [sweetheart FT])

Key Tool Stamping Terms (stamped/forged into tools):

  • Chrome - Vanadium (Circle CV)
  • Zenel
  • Bonaloy
  • Alloy Steel

Bonney Patents

Charles S. Bonney Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

----- Go Here for the Bonney Company Timeline

----- Go Here for the Bonney Research Page

Boss Wrench Company (Portland?, OR) - Incorporated 12/3/1913 by L. O. Thompson, H. P. Campbell, and H. P. Heninger.  Changed the name of the company to Boss Tool Manufacturing Company on 7/31/1915.  Mr. Heninger is removed from the incorporator list and A. J. Helms is added.   

Bossert Co. (Utica, NY)

  • Bossert (Wrenches)

According to this snippet from Poor's Government and Municipal Supplement of 1915, Bossert Co. was founded in 1896 and manufactures sheet metal stampings.  At the time of publication, the officers were: President - F. K. Kernan, VP - D. N. Crouse, Treas - Gilbert Butler, GM - J. R. Jones.

We found an announcement for the formation of The Bossert Electric Construction Co. in June of 1896 in Utica.  Directors - William F. Bossert, F. C. Adams, and F. Sang.

In 1941 The Bossert Co. is listed as supplying 75MM shells for the war effort.  By 1949, they are listed as a subsidiary of the Timken--Detroit Axle Co. and having purchased a new plant in New Castle, PA.  The last mention of the company we have found is 1974.

Boston Wrench Company (Portland, ME)  ​- Incorporated April 13, 1880 ​

Bradford Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Incorporated (DE) 12/27/1918 by Victor C. Gardner, John S. Tripp, Adam Rener, and Charles J. Henderson.

Braunsdorf-Mueller (Elizabeth, NJ) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • New Century (Screwdrivers)
  • O. K. (Screwdrivers)
  • Ideal (Screwdrivers)
  • Peerless (Screwdrivers)

Braunsdorf and/or Mueller Patents

----- According to Cope's book, founded in 1888 but I've found no information.

Bremen Metal Stamping Co. (Logan, OH)  Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Acme (DOE Wrenches)

----- Announced in June of 1919 as taking over the Bremen Mfg. Co.  In May of 1924, The Lancaster-Eagle Gazzette reports that the factory has been taken over by The Standard Glass Manufacturing Co., a division of The Hocking Glass Company.

Bridge Tool Co. (St. Louis, MO) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Bridge (DOE Wrenches)

----- Mostly due to the name, we've found no information on this company.

Bridgeport Hardware Manufacturing (Bridgeport, CT) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Ajax (chisels)
  • Autodriver (Screwdrivers)
  • Baby Shockless (Screwdrivers)
  • BHM Logo (B with H and M inside)
  • Bismarch (Screwdrivers)
  • Blackstone (Screwdrivers)
  • Blu-Forge (Wrenches)
  • Bridgeport Line
  • Bull Pup (Valve Lifter)
  • Challenge (Screwdrivers)
  • Fay-oh-Rite (Valve Lifter)
  • Gripshank (Screwdrivers)
  • Hercules (Screwdrivers)
  • Hy-Bar (Wrenches)
  • Hy-Power (Wrenches)
  • Lead-All (Screwdrivers)
  • Matchless Shockproof (Screwdrivers)
  • Perfecto (Screwdrivers)
  • Pyramid
  • Red Crown (Screwdrivers)
  • Sure Grip (Screwdrivers)
  • Vulcan (chisels)
  • Warwick (Screwdrivers)

Early Bridgeport Patents  

Contract Production for:

  • Montgomery Ward - Master Quality

   Key Tool Stamping Terms (stamped/forged into tools):

  • Forged Steel
  • Nickel Molybdenum
  • Molybdenum Alloy

BHM Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

Brock Wrench Manufacturing Co. (Garwood, NJ) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Brock's Flange (Pipe Wrenches)
  • Brock's New Standard (Pipe Wrenches)

----- First mentioned here for taxes due in 1895, noting the company is in Garwood, NJ with "offices" in New York.  Domestic Engineering of July, 1915 reports the company has been taken over by Greene, Tweed & Co. and will continue to market it's products.

Brosnihan Wrench Co. (Worcester, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Brosnihan (Pipe Wrenches)

----- The only information we've been able to find on this company is Patent No. 657,391, applied for in December, 1899 and awarded September of 1900 for a pipe wrench.  The company ceases to be mentioned as a wrench manufacturer in 1917.  This document from the Mass. House of Representatives and Senate and dated February 1912, appears to be a resolution to desolve this company, along with hundreds of others. 

Buffum Tool Co. (Louisiana, MO) - Contract Production for:

   Sub Brands

  • Buffum (Pliers - Slip Joint combos, Thin nose combos, Button pattern wire cutting, Lineman's)

Buffum Tool Co. Patents

Frank W. Buffum Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

Bull Dog (or Bulldog) Wrench Company (Benton Harbor, MI) - Incorporated 4/4/1924 by Nathan D. Simpson, Otis Klet, and Lucy Klet (all of Hartford, MI)

Bullard Automatic Wrench Company (Providence, RI)

Article from Power, 1/14/1908 on the Bullard Wrench.  All of the advertisements match the wrench described in a Frank D. Bullard Patent #742,389 - Pipe Wrench.  However, in the same year Mr. Bullard was awarded two different pipe-wrench design patents: Patent #729,728 and Patent #733,138.  Here is an article from the 12/29/1904 edition of Iron Age explaining the operation of the wrench.  On May 20, 1909 the factory was auctioned off.  For a very short time Roren Drop Forge & Wrench Company (Providence, RI) produced a "Bullard" wrench in 1910.  According to one source, Albert Roren was the former superintendent of Bullard, but we have found no evidence of this.

Butler Wrench Company (Mansfield, OH) - Organized ca. 2/1907, manager I. Hess.

California Wrench Company (San Francisco, CA) - Incorporated ca. 6/12/1895 by W. A. Boole, John D. McKee, W. L. Murphy, W. A. Boole Jr., and A. J. Mayer - $200,000 capital.

C. E. Bonner Mfg. Co. (Champaign / Chrisman, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Victor (Pipe Wrenches, Pliers, Pry Bar/Nail Puller)

Clarence E. Bonner Patents

----- Go Here for Company History

Cantilever Wrench Company / Cantilever Wrench Corp. (Newark, NJ) - In 1924, the company was reorganized and changed from "Company, Inc." to Corporation.  Officers under the reorganization were W. E. Cooke - President & Treasurer, A. B. Cozzens - VP & GM, F. J. Carnelli - Secretary.

Chamberlain Wrench Company (Bizmark, ND) - Incorporated April ​1913 to manufacture John W. Chamberlain's patented wrench - Patent #1,042,318.  Incorporators are John W. and Minnie J. Chamberlain and G. F. Dullam.  Mr. Chamberlain also applied for a patent for a combination claw hammer and plier multi-tool in 1906, however we cannot find that it was awarded.

Champion Wrench Co. (Chicago, IL) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Champion (Adjustables)

---- In a 21 March, 1921 article in the Chicago Daily Tribune, the company is advertising looking for manufacturing space.  They also report the company was incorporated on July 29, 1920.  1921 is the only year we can find any information for this company.

Chas. H. Besly Co. (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Besly (DOE Wrenches)

----- First mention we can find is in the 11/4/1884 edition of The Decatur Herald for a $24 claim.  In the 1/13/1917 edition of The Day Book, a fire reportedly destroyed the Chas. H. Besly & Co. plant.  We cannot find the final disposition of the company but they are advertising for Stenographers in the 4/12/1951 edition of the Chicago Daily Tribune.

C. H. Besly Patents

----- Earliest reference found - 1884; latest reference found - 1951

Chicago Manufacturing & Distributing Co. (Chicago, IL) - The Chicago Secretary of State reports the company was incorporated March 1, 1911.  In 1948, A. Clark Moore is President.

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Wright (Adjustables)

Gordon K. Wright - Patent #1,089,737 - Ratchet Wrench - Assigned to Chicago Mfg. & Distributing Co.

Chicago Manufacturing & Distributing Co. Patents

Chicago Pipe Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Incorporated by William F. Rupp, Arthur W. O'Leary, and Emma S. O'Leary 4/8/1889.  This company was formed to produce a pipe wrench patented by Charles L. Dunham of Union City, PA, Patent #404,781.

Cincinnati Tool Co. (Cincinatti, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Hargrave (Chisels, Pliers (Combination & Lineman), Screwdrivers)
  • Standard?? (Clamps)

Clarence E. Wakefield (Worcester, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Wakefield (Adjustables)
  • Wizard (Adjustables)

C. E. Wakefield Patents

The Climax Specialty Co. (Seneca Falls, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Climax (Pliers)

C. M. B. Wrench Co. (Garwood, NJ) Link to patents

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Silver King (Wrenches)
  • Auto Queen (Wrenches)

Cochran Pipe Wrench Manufacturing Co. (Chicago, IL) - Formed to produce Patent #885,322 by James M. Cochran of Paducah, KY.  This earlier Cochran patent for a pipe wrench is also relevant, Patent #597,762.  Here is another pipe wrench patent from later attributed to Mr. Cochran, Patent #1,071,703

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Cochran (Pipe Wrenches)
  • Speednut (Wrenches)

Coes Wrench Co. (Worcester, MA) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Coes (Adjustables)
  • Key Model (Adjustables)

Coes Wrench Co. Patents

Columbus Wrench Company (Columbus, OH) - Incorporated 3/28/1896 and only 1 subsequent mention later the same year amending the face value of stock from $1,000 to $100.

Convertible Ratchet Wrench Co. (Allentown, PA)

Company charter announced in the Harrisburg Telegraph on 12/1/1911 with an initial capital of $15,000.  Company disposition is unknown and the last listing we can find is in 1921.  This company was formed to manufacture J. C. Hawes Patent #1,050,131, filed in October of 1910 and awarded 1/1913.

Cornwell Quality Tools (Cayahoga Falls, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

----- Go here for company history

Corry Wrench Company (Corry, PA) - In 1904, Ernest Keppel took the reigns (or possibly started?) of the company, which apparently survived until at least his retirement in 1929.  Destroyed by fire 7/23/1915. 

Cortland Wrench Company (Cortland, NY) - ca. 1897 - Factory burned 1/20/1898 and the officers at that time were J. H. Wallace, W. W. Hout, and P. B. Canfield.  The article on the fire notes the company was started a year prior.  The company was started to manufacture a bicycle wrench patent of Phillip B. Canfield, patent #575,592.

Crescent Tool Co. (Jamestown, NY) - Contract Production for:

  • J.H. Williams

   Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • CRESTOLOY (Wrenches & Pliers
  • Crescent (Pliers, Adjustables)
  • Simplex (Pliers)
  • Cee Tee Co. (Pliers)
  • CTCO (Logo - Pliers)
  • Hamr-Handl (Screwdriver with stowable Hammer Head on Handle)

Crescent Tool Co. Patents

----- Go here for company history

Crescent Forgings Co. (Oakmont, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Rothweiler (Pipe Wrenches)

Crescent Forgings Co. Patents

First mention of the Crescent Forgings Co. is 1905.  We found a newspaper article from November of 1914 noting that their plant had shut down "a few months ago."

The Cronk & Carrier Mfg. Co. (Emlira, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Cronk's (Chisels, Pliers)
  • Elmira (Screwdrivers)
  • Star (Screwdrivers)
  • Cronk (Wrenches)

Cronk & Carrier Patents

William Cronk Patents

This link will take you to a detailed history for William Cronk - Some highlights: He owned a HW store (N. H. Conkin & Co.) where he invented tools and his barn door hanger.  This led to the establishment of his company in 1883, which turned into the Cronk & Carrier Co., which was eventually sold in 1932.

The following excerpt is From: Our County and its people; A History of the Valley and County of Chemung; BY: Ausburn Towner; D. Mason & Co., Publishers; Syracuse, N. Y. 1892

Cronk Hanger Co., The. - This company was organized and incorporated in Elmira in 1885 with Charles R. Pratt as president and C. F. Carrier secretary and treasurer. Its capital stock is $50,000, its manufactory being at Havana and its business headquarters at Elmira. Comparatively a new industry it started in a small way, but its growth has been rapid and continuous, its increase for the past three years being from forty to fifty per cent, per annum. It employs from thirty to forty men in the shops and keeps five men on the road. The Cronk hanger is sold throughout the United States. Its specalties are steel covered, anti friction, barn door hangers of the two separate designs under patents of both Cronk and Carrier Carrier's double braced steel rail, Cronk's adjustable stay roller, steel hangers, Cronk's steel hangers for wood truck, etc.

C. S. Osborne & Co. (Newark, NJ) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Osborne (Pliers)

Davis Wrench Company (Elmira, NY) - Dissolved by order of the Governor in April, 1924.  Most certainly formed to produced wrenches against Patent #286,913 in 1883 by Robert W. Davis and assigned to the company.

Detroit Wrench Company (Detroit, MI) - The Michigan Annual Report has the company charter as September, 1906.  The October, 1908 edition of Engineering Review carries the announcement of the formation of the company to manufacturer the Ewer line of wrenches.  Officers noted in this article are: Charles S. Tolsma - Pres., M. G. Ewer - VP and GM, and Walter G. Toepel - Sec. & Treas.

A July 1908 newspaper article announces a stockholder meeting to take place.  The notice contains reference to 3 gentlemen at the bottom: M. G. Ewer (see Ewer Wrench Company below), Chas. S. Tolsma, and W. G. Toepel.

On August 16, 1910, M. G. Ewer was granted his second wrench Patent #967,355 which we believe prompted the formation of the Ewer Wrench Company (see below).

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Ewer (Pipe / Nut Wrenches)

Diamond Calk Horseshoe Co. (Duluth, MN) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

Contract Production for:

  • Plomb Tool (Adjustables)
  • Sears - Craftsman (Adjustables)
  • Sears - Fulton (Adjustables)
  • Sears - Merit (Adjustables)
  • Snap-On (Adjustables)
  • S-K (Adjustables)
  • MAC (Adjustables)
  • MATCO (Adjustables)
  • Kelley-How-Thomson (K.H.T.) Company (Adjustables)
  • Montgomery Wards - Master Quality (Adjustables)
  • Blue-Point (Pliers)

Diamond Calk & Horseshoe Patents

Otto Swanstrom (Founder) Patents

----- Go here for company history

Diamond Wrench Manufacturing Company (Portland, ME) - This Maine state business report indicates the company was founded July 4, 1881 in Skowhegan but this incorporation states "for the Dominion of Canada."  Destroyed by vire 3/3/1886 // A. C. Libby - Treasurer 12/1886.  Founded to produce wrenches in multiple sizes based on Patent #286,653 by Henry A. Thompson of Farmington, ME.

Diamond Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) ca. 1900

Dixon Wrench Company (New York, NY) - 9/10/1907 edition of Hardware - Incorporated 8/19/1907 by Jay J. Dixon, Curtis M. Shawkey, and Roy Dixon. 

The 8/24/1907 edition of Domestic Engineering notes the formation of the company and names officers E. A. Montfort and Fred Knowlton - (could be a different company?)  The 6/13/1910 edition of Industrial World notes the charter again in Warren, PA and names Paul T. DeFrees as Treasurer, and the following as Directors: B. W. Rogers, J. H. DeFrees, and Paul T. Defrees. 

This company was likely founded to produce wrenches against Jay J. Dixon's pipe wrench patent #837,809.  The company appears to have been re-chartered in Warren, PA in 1910.  Warren, PA is the home of Jay J. Dixon.

Drake & Wiers Co. (Cleveland, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Meadville (Adjustables)

Company is listed as early as 1895, with William D. Drake as President.  They disappear from listings circa 1918.

Drop Forgings Co. of New York (or Jersey City, NJ)

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Spartan (Pipe Wrenches)

D. Saunders' Sons, Inc. (Yonkers, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Saunders' (Pipe Wrenches)

Patents assigned to D. Saunders' Sons, Inc.

Andrew Saunders Patents

Based on patent information, this company existed since at least 1875.  The latest listing we can locate comes from Poor's Index in 1932, listing William Lapham Saunders as VP & Director of the company.

Dudley Tool Co. / Dudley Manufacturing Co. (1921) (Menominee, MI)

  • Dudley (Wrenches)

Incorporation notice from the Engineering Review of October, 1905.  It lists Herman Heinrichs, Albert Dudley Sr., and William Green as principals.  This company disappears circa 1917.

Du Charme Wrench & Novelty Co. (Cambridge, OH)  ​- Pipe Wrench

The Dunston Ratchet Wrench Company (La Crosse, WI) (Moved to Decatur, IL Nov, 1904) - Most likely founded to manufacture Patent #734,408 of Horace G. Dunston of Santa Monica, CA.

Duplex Wrench Company (Dunkirk/Sherman, NY) - Incorporated 12/10/1915 by W. M. Boyd, W. L. N. Lofland, and George W. Morgan.  A 1941 newspaper article names John Coe as proprietor.

Duro Metal Products Co. (Chicago, IL) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

   Contract Production for

  • Western Auto - ChromeXQuality (Wrenches, Sockets, Drive Accessories)
  • Western Auto - Westline
  • Western Auto - Perfection (Wrenches)
  • Western Auto - Wizard
  • Sears - Cross Country (Wrenches)
  • Sears - Durobilt
  • Montgomery Wards - Riverside (Wrenches, Sockets)
  • Montgomery Wards - Master Quality (Sockets, Drive Tools, Ratchets)
  • Montgomery Wards - Powr-Kraft (Sockets)

Duro Metal Products Patents

------Go here for Duro History

Eagle Beak Wrench Company (Pierre, SD) - Incorporated 4/17/1903 with $100,000 capital stock - No further information found.

Eagle Claw Wrench Co. (Chicago, IL)

  • Eagle (Wrenches)

Patents for Eagle Claw

Earl Wrench Company (Portland?, OR) - Incorporated 10/25/1914 by Virgil D. Earl, Frank E. Mangold, and George W. Frazier.  Likely founded to produce Virgil D. Earl's Socket Bit Wrench, Patent #1,107,769.  In January, 1923 they appear on a list of corporations having not paid their license fees to the state for 2 years.

Eclipse Saw & Tool Works (Springfield, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Eclipse (Pliers)

Edmunds-Metzel Mfg. Co. (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Perpetual (Pipe Wrenches)
  • Universal (Wrenches)

Edmunds - Metzel Mfg. Co. Patents ******Double Alligator with Threaders*******

E. Edelmann & Co. (Chicago, IL) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Han-D (Wrenches)
  • Sextet (Wrenches)
  • E. E. (Wrenches)

Edelmann & Co. Patents

This company shows up as early as 1912 in a job advertisement for a stenographer.  The founder appears to have been Eric Edelmann but we believe the company was run by Leo Edelmann.  Here is a nice company history from the current organization known as Plews & Edelmann.  In 1929 they merged with W. F. Martin, Inc. but continued operating under the E. Edelmann & Co. name.

Edgar C. Guthard Co. (Chicago, IL) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Billmont (Wrenches)

EC Guthard Co. Patents

The Edwinson Ratchet Wrench Company (Topeka, KS) - Incorporated 11/8/1923 by L. A. Edwinson - Pres., L. A. Hartman - VP, M. G. Delph - Sec., L. E. Stone Asst. Sec., A. F. Weese - Treas., and E. A. Wysong - Director.  Article notes wrenches being manufactured by Capital Iron Works of Topeka.  Here is Louis Edwinson's 1921 ratchet wrench patent #1,391,619 upon which the company was likely founded.

Efficiency Device Corp. (New York, NY) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Efficiency (Adjustables)

Elmore Tool Manufacturing Co. (Hartford, CT) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Star (Screwdrivers)
  • Hartford (Screwdrivers)

Erie Specialty Co. (Erie, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Walker (Screwdrivers)

Erie Stamping & Mfg. Co (Erie, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Esco (Wrenches, Screwdrivers)

Erie Stamping & Mfg. Co. Patents

------Founded February 9, 1904 to manufacture engine and carriage trimmings, plumbers supplies and hardware.  Here is a short excerpt from A twentieth century history of Erie County, PA.  In 1909 they were located at 646 W. 12th St.

Erie Tool Works (Erie, PA) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • B. C. Adjustable (Adjustables)
  • Pipemaster (Pipe Wrenches)

Erie Tool Works Patents

-------Go here for Erie Tool Works History

E. S. E. Wrench Company (Aberdeen, SD) - Incorporated 12/10/1920 by R. C. Evans, J. H. Erickson, and V. E. Scheder.  R. C. Evans of St. Paul, MN received Patent #1,371,415 for a wrench and assigned 1/2 to Mr. Erickson of Minneapolis on 3/15/1921.  This company was likely formed to produce wrenches under the aforementioned patent however, we can find no further reference to the company aside from the formation announcement.

​Ewer Wrench & Tool Company // Ewer Wrench Company (Detroit & Howell, MI) - The Detroit Free Press of 7/30/1909 carries the announcment of the company charter.  The August 13,1910 edition of the Detroit Free Press announces the Incorporation of the "Ewer Wrench & Tool Manufacturing Company.  Here is a link to a picture on Flickr of the factory and it's employees at Howell, MI.  We are unsure of the date of the photo.

On August 16, 1910, M. G. Ewer was granted his second wrench Patent #967,355 which we believe prompted the formation of the Ewer Wrench Company.  This Michigan Dept. of Labor Report suggests the factory of the Ewer Wrench & Tool Co. factory in Detroit was inspected on October 29th of 1910.  The Michigan Manufacturer & Financial Record of 8/13/1910 reports that the Ewer Wrench & Tool Co. will move from Detroit to Howell.  This snippet announcement from a 1910 edition of Iron Trade Review announces the incorporation of Ewer Wrench & Tool Co.  Here is an advertisement from October, 1911 for the Ewer Wrench.

Although only a snippet, this 1912 edition of Railway Review has an article noting the officers elected as a result of it's annual meeting.  Malcolm G. Ewer - Pres., Frederick Seagraves - VP, Stephen K.? Hartnell? - Sec. & Treas.  It also adds Fred E. Tallmadge and John S. Shields, along with the officers, as Directors.  It also notes that Ewer, Tallmadge and Hartnel? are directors of the Ewer Sales Co. which takes the entire output of the wrench production, as well as markets the Ewer automatic car seal (Patent #1,011,766).

The Michigan Manufacturer & Financial Record of 8/7/1920 reports the company's new factory will begin operations about August 10th.​  We believe the company started in Lansing ca. 1913 and the previously noted article is from Howell, MI.  Malcolm G. Ewer received Patent #833,516 on 10/16/1906 for a pipe wrench.  Please see Detroit Wrench Company above.

This edition of the Michigan Manufacturer & Financial Record indicates the company is failing and considering offering the factory for sale on May 8.

The Fairbanks Co. (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Fairbanks (DOE Wrenches)

Fairmount Tool & Forging (Cleveland, OH) - Contract Production for:

   Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Fairalloy 

   Key Tool Stamping Terms:

  • Chrome Molybdenum
  • Chrome Alloy
  • Fairalloy

Fairmount Patents

------Go here for Fairmount history.

Ferodowill Mfg. Co. (St. Paul, MN) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Diamond (Wrenches)

Joseph Henry Ferodowill Patents

------Founded by Joseph Henry Ferodowill.  The earliest mention of the company comes in The Blacksmith & Wheelwright Magazine of January, 1903.  The company appears to exist until at least 1981 where Eugene Ferodowill is listed as President.

F. E. Wells & Sons - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Wells (Pipe Wrenches)

------In March of 1917, this company was acquired by Greenfield Tap & Die as reported by Moody's Industrial.

F. J. McCabe (Chicago, IL) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Y (Alligator Wrenches)

F. K. Lawrence Mfg. Co. (Chicago, IL) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Easyway (Wrenches)

F. K. Lawrence Mfg. Co. Patents

------An advertisement for the Easyway wrench can be found here.

The Flash Sales Corp. (Chicago, IL) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Plierench (Adjustables)
  • Flash Plierench (Adjustables)

F. L. Smithe Machine Co. (New York, NY) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Smitheco (Wrenches)

------This company principally focused on paper related machinery.  Their primary inventor appears to have been Henry Helm, whos patents can be found here.  The company appears to have been acquired in 2009.

Fones Quick Pipe Wrench Company Inc. (New Rochelle, NY) - Incorporated 5/28/1926 (DE) by John F. and Margaret M. Fones, A. L. Carey, and Phillip L. Garrett.

On June 12, 1923, John H. Fones of Oakland, CA was awarded Patent #1,458,474 for a wrench.  On January 26, 1925, he was awarded his second Patent #1,522,432 for another wrench.  On December 8, 1925, he was awarded his third wrench Patent #1,564,411 for a third wrench design.  The company was likely founded in 1926 to produce wrenches against these patents.  However, we can find no evidence they were ever produced, nor any further reference to this company beyond it's incorporation notice.

Forged Steel Products Co. (Newport, PA) - Contract Production for:

  • Snap-on (Pliers)
  • Gamble's Auto Stores

   Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Artisan
  • Tiger Tools
  • Vacuum Grip

------Forged Steel Products history can be found here.

F. Patrick Duross Sub Brands

  • Durabell (Pipe Wrenches)

Patrick F. Duross Patents

Frank Mossberg Co. (Attleboro, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • M (inside Diamond) // Later Filing
  • Sterling (Adjustable, Wrenches)
  • Diamond (Adjustable, Wrenches)
  • Alderman (Adjustable, Wrenches)
  • National (Adjustable, Wrenches)
  • Auto Cle' (Wrenches, Pliers)
  • Gripsall (Wrenches)

Frank Mossberg Patents

Walter Tuttle Patents (also a noted company inventor)

------Mossberg history can be found here

Franklin Tool & Wrench Company (Portland, ME) - Incorporation notice from 9/1885 found here.

Frederick Pfeifer (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Johnston Automatic (Pipe Wrench)

Gamble's Auto Supply Co. (Minneapolis, MN) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

Garage Equipment Mfg. Co. (Milwaukee, WI) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Gemco (Wrenches)

Gealy Wrench and Manufacturing Company (Greenville, PA?) - Incorporated 11/14/1911 in Grove City, PA by G. M. Gealy, **I. C. Black, A. S. White W. S. Cope.  ** Likely "Ira C. Black"

Pipe (chain) wrench Patent #802,187 was awarded on 10/17/1905 to George M. Gealy of Enoch Valley, PA and self assigned.

His second pipe wrench Patent #1,078,426 was awarded on 11/11/1913 and assigned to the company.

On 10/30/1917, Mr. Gealy was awarded Patent #1,244,596 for a reversible ratchet wrench, the patent was self assigned.

Here is an article from the March 16, 1912 edition of Domestic Engineering explaining the operation of the Gealy Wrench.

Gellman Wrench Corp. (Chicago, IL) - The Chicago Tribune reports the company was founded in 1922 and, in 1924, was renamed the Gellman Manufacturing Company.  In 1940, the company's products were bread slicing, wrapping and sealing machines.

Israel Gellman - Patent #1,451,906 - Wrench - Self Assigned (Known as the "Polly" wrench

Israel Gellman - Patent &1,451,873 - Adjustable Socket Wrench - Self Assigned

September, 1922 Advertisement from Motor World

George A. Cutter (Nashua, NH / Taunton, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Bay State Autokit (Wrenches, Sockets, Ratchet)
  • Stickit (Wrenches)

George A Cutter Patents

The Gifford Pipe Wrench Company (Kittery, ME) - Organized 11/8/1899 to acquire "the Gifford Patents" and manufacture wrenches.  Organized by James S. Wilson - Pres., and C. W. Wilson - Treas.

The Sanitary & Heating Age from 11/18/1899 also carries the organizational announcement of the week prior, and adds Mr. F. E. Sands to the list of organizers.

"Gifford" patents refers to Jireh C. Gifford of Cambridge, MA.  Patents include:

* Possibly refers to W. S. Quinby Co. - Fitchburg

Girard Wrench Mfg. Co. (Girard, PA) - Several sources state that this company took over operations of the Walton Wrench Manufacturing Company of Girard, PA.  Walton was incorporated/chartered April 26, 1874.  According to Girard, A Canal Town's History by Geoffrey L Domowicz, the company was first formed in 1874 as the T. B. Walton Company, and shortly thereafter changed to the Walton Wrench Manufacturing Company.  The company began manufacturing wrenches against Patent #117,679 by George B. Phillips of Cleveland, OH, and assigned to Joshua E. Hall, George J. Levake, William Norville, and A. Ward Fenton (could be Penton), all also of Cleveland.  According to the book, due to the high cost of manufacturing the wrench, the company failed and was sold at a sherrif's sale in 1875.  The company was purchased by William C. Culbertson, C. F. Rockwell, Charles F. Webster, and Rush S. Battles, who successfully operated under Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company (LLP). 

On 5/24/1888, the Girard Wrench factory burned to the ground.  The newspaper report gives us clues on the ownership, and therefore patents associated.  It mentions the following owners of the company: W. C. Culbertson, R. S. Battles, C. W. Webster, and C. F. Rockwell.  This article also notes the factory will not likely be rebuilt.

The obituary of Russ S. Battles (3/17/1904) notes that besides his 1/4 interest in Girard Wrench, he had significant financial interest in the Lake Erie Foundry and was Proprietor of the Climax Iron Works at Corry, PA.

The final mention we find of Girard Wrench is March, 1922 when they are named in a lawsuit with The Siberian Company, Ltd.

Patents likely associated:

  • Patent #117,679 - Improvement in Wrenches - George B. Phillips of Cleveland, OH, - Awarded 8/1/1871 - assigned to Joshua E. Hall, George J. Levake, William Norville, and A. Ward Fenton (could be Penton), all also of Cleveland
  • Patent #165,655 - Nut Wrench - Rush S. Battles awarded 7/20/1875
  • Patent #166,587 - Nut Wrench - Matthew E. Campfield awarded 8/10/75 and assigned to Rush S. Battles
  • Patent #260,771 - Monkey Wrench - Charles H. Miller of Erie - DATAMP reports manufacture by Girard
  • Canadian Patent #16,300 - Monkey Wrench - Charles H. Miller of Erie - Assigned to Girard

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

Globe Wrench Company (Sunapee, NH) - Incorporated 2/14/1915 by M. F. Knowlton, E. P. Bartlett, W. F. Galucia, and Lucy L. Knowlton.  Listed in the 1910 Maine Tax Assessor's Report also.  This article about the Globe Wrench from March 25, 1913, places the company in Ipswich, MA.  Another article placing the company in Ipswich.

Gordon Wrench Corporation (New York, NY) - Incorporated 1/10/1921 by H. J. O'neill, E. J. Fenton, and J. H. Dreyer Jr. in Westbury, Long Island.  This company was likely formed to produce William Gordon - Patent #1,407,528 - Wrench - Self Assigned.  There is no evidence the wrench was produced or the company was successful.

Graham Vise-Wrench Company (Buffalo, NY) - Formed ca. 4/1890 (1448 Niagara St.) - No further mention of this company located

​Graly Wrench & Manufacturing Co. (Grove City, PA) -​ Chain Pipe Wrenches

Green Wrench Company (Marshall, MI) - Listed as a new Michigan Corporation in the August 26, 1922 edition of the Michigan Manufacturer & Financial Record.  Organizers noted are: Paul Green, Paul Jones, and Clyde Cortright.  The second article at the same link notes they took over the propery of the Lambert Machine Company.  Property and equipment sold at auction 6/29/1923.  Likely formed to produces Paul Green's Patent #1,423,793 for a pipe wrench.

Greene, Tweed & Co. (Newark, NJ) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

Greene, Tweed & Co. Patents

Greenfield Tool & Die Corp (Greenfield, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • G T C (Pipe Wrenches)
  • Little Giant (Pipe Wrenches)

Greenfield Tap & Die Patents

Guernsey Wrench Co. (Lawrence, MA) - Appears to have been formed ca. 1911 to produce the Guernsey monkey wrench, and defunct by ca. 1914. 

Charles C. Guernsey - Patent #978,151 - Monkey Wrench - Assigned 1/2 to Frank O. Libbey

  • Guernsey

Hacheney Wrench Company, Inc. (Portland, OR) - Incorporated 12/31/1924 by Frank C. Frey, William Caldwell, and Frank C. Hacheney.  Notable is the capital at $1M.

Frank Hacheney Notable Patents:

Chas. E. Hall Co. (Buffalo, NY) ​- The 4/8/1907 edition of The Buffalo Commercial announces that The Union Specialty & Manufacturing Company, formed in 1901 to manufacture machine tools, will change it's name to the Charles E. Hall Company on 5/15/1907.  William H. Crosby - Pres. (also Pres. of The Crosby Company), C. R. Hatch - Sec., Charles E. Hall - VP.  In 1914, the company was acquired by Barcalo Manufacturing Co.

1908 advertisement.

  • Hall (Wrenches)

Handee Wrench Company (Mansfield, OH) - ca. 1918 for receivership - it appears this company lasted until ca. 1923 and sold the original "dogbone" wrench.  The engineers involved appear to be John and Henry Kaercher, who immigrated from Germany ca. 1912.  We were undable to locate a patent.

Handlan-Buck Manufacturing Co. (St. Louis, MO)

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Cochran (Pipe Wrenches)
  • Buck (DOE Wrenches)

Handlan-Buck Mfg. Co. Patents

Harold King Wrench Company (Indianapolis, IN) - Incorporated 8/9/1916 by Harold King, M. King, and M. King.

Harold King appears to have had 3 patents for Pipe Wrenches:

Harris & Reed Manufacturing Co. (Chicago, IL)

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Harris & Reed (DOE Wrenches)

Harris & Reed Patents

Here is some portion of history of the company, laying out the history of Elijah Harris who is President of the company at the time of this publication in 1909.

Harvey's Sons Manufacturing Co. (Detroit, MI)  ​- Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Harvey's Wright (Pipe Wrench)

Hays Manufacturing Co. (Erie, PA) - Founded in 1865 as Jarecki Hays & Company.  Found as Hays Manufacturing as early as 1888.  William B. Hays, William B. Forster, John W. Hays -

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

  • Hays (DOE Wrenches)

Haward Wrench Company (Springfield, MO) - Incorporated 3/28/1914 by Robert H. and Homer Hayward (Homer is the inventor [Hubert H. Hayward) of Springfield, and Lewis T. Duncan of Dadesville.  This company was sold to R. K. Hawley, J. W. Holman and C. B. Holman of St. Louis on 11/12/1915. 

Hubert H. Hayward Patent #1,077,343 - Wrench

Hawkeye Wrench Company (Marshalltown, IA)

A​rticle on the Hawkey Wrench from The Metal Worker of March 12, 1904.

Likely formed ca. 1903 to produce a patented wrench by Charles Benesh (ND) - Patent #720,554 - Combined Wrench and Thread Cutter.

H. D. Smith Co. (Plantsville, CT) - Most sources identify 1850 as the formation year for this company.  However, we have not yet been able to locate any source documentation to support this.

Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Perfect Handle (Screwdrivers, Pipe Wrenches)
    • Sharpenezy (Chisels)
    • Gittatit (Pliers)

    Heller Brothers Co. (Newark, NJ) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Masterench (Adjustables)

    Heller Brothers Patents

    American Made Files website page on Heller Brothers.

    Helwig Manufacturing Co. (St. Paul, MN) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Helwig (Adjustables)

    Henry Cheney Hammer Co. (Little Falls, NY) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Cheney (Adjustables)

    Henry Cheney Hammer Patents // Titus Hose (inventor for company) Patents History Page

    Davistown Museum Cheney Page

    Progress is Fine Cheney Page

    The Herbrand Co. (Fremont, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

       Contract Production for

    • Montgomery Ward - Riverside
    • Truth Tool (Specialty Wrenches)
    • Western Auto - ChromeXQuality (Wrenches)
    • Western Auto - Western Giant (Wrenches)
    • Western Auto - "Obstructo" (Obstruction Wrenches)
    • Bethlehem Spark Plug Co. (Ratchets)
    • Billings & Spencer (Sockets)

    Key Tool Stamping Terms (stamped/forged into tools):

    • Chromium Vanadium
    • H-Diamond
    • Van-Chrome
    • Vi-Chrome
    • Multi-Hex
    • ChromeXQuality
    • Chrome-Alloy (found on pliers)

    Herbrand Patents

    -----See here for Herbrand History

    The Hercules Adjustable Pipe Wrench Company (San Francisco, CA) - Incorporated 5/9/1898 by Richard O'Connor, H. A. Jones, Hugh Keenan, Joseph M. O'Brien, and Thomas E. Ryan.  (Note the incorporators mostly match those of The Atlas Pipe Wrench Co.)

    Hewet Wrench Co. (Rock Island, IL) ca. 1876 - Here is a very interesting article to read on Henry Wheaton Hewit (or more likely Hewitt).  Article is entitled "A Friend I knew."

    H. W. Hewit Patent #87,774

    The Hewett Improved Wrench Company (Cincinatti, OH) - Incorporated by H. W. Hewett, T. S. Michie, E. H. Carter, C. O. Resor, and J. H. Carter on 10/24/1872.

    Hewett Screw Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Announcement of dissolution of the company (partnership) by Henry W. Hewett and Elson T. Wright on 11/11/1875.  Mr. Hewett assumes all assets and liabilities.

    Hill Pump Valve Co. (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Utility (Wrenches)

    Hilts Wrench & Mfg. Co. (Richford, NY)

    George S. Hilts Patent #483,785 - Chain Pipe Wrench

    Canadian Patent #41224 - Pipe Wrench - 1892

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Comet (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Eclipse (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Hilts (Pipe Wrenches)

    Hinsdale Manufacturing Co. (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

       Contract Production for

    • Sears - Craftsman Vanadium (Wrenches, Sockets, Drive Accessories)
    • Sears - Craftsman HD DBE Series (Wrenches)
    • Western Auto (MultiHex Wrenches)
    • Gamble's Auto Supply Co. (Socket Sets - 1927, 8)

    Key Tool Stamping Terms (stamped/forged into tools):

    • Chrome Vanadium Steel
    • Hinsdale Vanadium

    Hinsdale Patents

    -----See here for Hinsdale History

    Hitt Wrench Company (Edenwold, TN) - ca. 8/1915 to produce a wrench invented by J. E. Hitt.  John E. Hitt Patent #1,060,185.  The article notes manufacturing to be done by The Eagle Manufacturing Company.

    Hjorth Wrench Co. (Jamestown, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Empire (Wrenches, Pipe Wrenches)
    • Lightening (Wrenches)
    • Hjorth Bent Nose (Pliers)
    • New Auto (Pliers)

    Hjorth company patents

    Hutton & Hutton (Springfield, MA) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • 101 (Wrenches)

    Hy-Speed Wrench Co. (Chicago, IL) - Incorporated in August of 1919 in IL.  The 11/5/1919 edition of The Metal Worker, Plumber and Steam Fitter carries the incorporation announcement.  Principals noted are Israel Lipman, Ray Rhyman, and William Frankel.  A local newspaper from 4/15/1923 announces the auction of the factory and all equipment.  Newspaper articles discuss the ownership of multiple patents but we have yet to identify them.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Quic Klamp (Adjustables)

    Ide Wrench Company (Troy, NY) ​- Chain and Pipe wrenches ca. 1893.  Here is an advertisement / article on the Ide Pipe Wrench. 

    Fred B. Ide (Assigned to Nathan D. Ide) Patent #492,626 - Hand Wrench

    Ideal Wrench Company (Tacoma, WA)  ​- Incorporated in the spring of 1907, as reported in the March 10 edition of Hardware.  Incorporators are Allen C. Mason, J. F. Wright, and F. M. Harshberger.

    Ideal Wrench Company (New York, NY) - Incorporated 3/24/1897 by John F. Thomson, Alfred Josephson, and Ferdinand Beach.  Advertisement for their combined nut wrench and screwdriver.  Patent #572,035 by Walter C. Stokes for a bicycle wrench / screwdriver was assigned to the Ideal Wrench Company for manufacture in 1897.  Prior to assigning the patent to Ideal, Mr. Stokes contracted the Garvin Machine Company to produce the wrenches in February of 1897.  Several hundred wrenches were produced by Garvin but the quality was so lacking, Stokes sued the company for breach of contract.  The lawsuit appears to have started ca. 1900 and continuous appeals by Garvin strung the case out until 1905. 

    Indestro Manufacturing Co. (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

       Contract Production for

    • Western Auto - ChromeXQuality
    • Chromium Vanadium
    • Western Auto - Perfection
    • Western Auto - Wizard
    • Sears - Cross Country

    Indestro Patents

    -----See here for Indestro History

    Indianapolis Drop Forging Co (Indianapolis, IN) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Tiger (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Nye (Pipe Wrenches)

    IDF Patents

    Irland Pipe Wrench Co. (Boston, MA) -

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Irland's (Pipe Wrenches)

    Irland Assigned Patents

    Irving Mfg. & Tool Co. (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Irving (Pliers)

    Irvington Manufacturing Co. (Irvington, NJ) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (Pliers)

    Ives Mfg. Co. (Wallingford, CT) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Mephisto (Wrenches, Screwdrivers)

    J. C. McCarty & Co. (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Lanes (Wrenches)

    J.H. Williams & Co. (Brooklyn, NY / Buffalo, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Vulcan // Vulcan (2) // Vulcan (3) Vulcan (4) (First use 8/12/1897)
    • W (Inside Diamond) (First use 1884)
    • Superior (Wrenches)
    • Volume (Wrenches, Sockets, Ratchets, Drive Tools)
    • Cromal (DBE Wrenches)
    • DUOHEX (DBE Wrenches)
    • Superjustable (Adjustable Wrenches) (First use 5/13/1921)
    • Measurrench (First use 7/13/1938)
    • Superrench (Wrenches) (First use 10/10/1925)
    • Superratchet (Ratchets)
    • Hornet (First Use 7/6/1976)
    • Bantam (Small socket sets)
    • Supersocket (Sockets)
    • Supertorque (First use 4/1/1993)
    • Multisocket (Wrenches)

       Contract Production for

    • Sears - Craftsman L (Adjustables)
    • Sears - Craftsman (Wrenches [dogbone])
    • Babcock Printing Press Manufacturing Co.

    Jiffy Automatic Wrench Company (Independence, MO) ​- Patent #1,354,782 by Guido F. Schlote and assigned to Jiffy.

    Jiffy Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Incorporated (DE) 3/30/1917 by George E. Allen, J. G. Burris, and C. W. Shaffer. Corporation charter repealed by the Governor on January 27, 1921 for non-payment of annual license fees.

    John A Roebling's Sons Co. (Trenton, NJ) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Alligator (Pipe Wrenches)

    Johnson Wrench Company (St. Louis, MO) - ca. 1897 William J. Henley (associated person, possibly a salesman)

    Johnson Wrench Company (New York, NY) - Incorporated 5/10/1927 (DE) by Oscar Johnson, Francis W. Douglas, and William E. Clark.

    J.P. Danielson Co. (Jamestown, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Auto-Kit (Wrenches)
    • Controlled Steel (Wrenches)
    • Bet'R-Grip (Adjustables) (First Use 1933)

       Contract Production for

    • P&C
    • Plomb Tool
    • Proto
    • Sears - Craftsman
    • Sears - Dunlap
    • Sears - Fulton
    • Sears - Merit

        Key Tool Stamping Terms (stamped/forged into tools):

    • Controlled Steel

    J. H. Faw Co. (New York, NY) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Fawsco (Wrenches)

    The Jumbo Manufacturing Co. (Sisterville, WV / Pittsburgh, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Jumbo (Pipe Wrenches)

    Kanavel Wrench Company (Killbuck, OH) ca. 1922 - Mentions Lyman N. Kanavel.  Lyman Kanavel Patent #1,169,833 - Combination wrench & wire stretcher.

    Clarence Kemp (Baltimore, MD) ​- Mr. Kemp was a prolific inventor in the late 1800s.  The original inventor of the Solar Panel.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    Key-Bar Wrench Company (Akron, OH) - Incorporated 10/24/1924 by John R. Long, L. S. Ballard, E. D. Eddy, R. W. Clark, and Matthew Eskovitz

    Keystone Drop Forge. (Chester, PA) - George K Crozer - President, passed away 6/6/1921.  Organized in 1899 as the Keystone Drop Forge Works in Phildelphia, the company moved to Chester in 1902.  On March 12, 1927, the announcment of a receivers auction of the company and it's equipment is first announced.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Wrenches

    Keystone Manufacturing Co. (Buffalo, NY) Articles of incorporation filed 5/10/1900 by Gustav A. and Charles A. Haist.  However, the company begins appearing in papers ca. 1897.  Foster A. Haist - President of the company (perhaps former?) committed suicide in 1937 for fear of being a semi-invalid.  We believe the company failed in the 19-teens. 

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Champion (Wrenches)
    • Westcott (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Keystone (Wrenches, Ratchets, Socket Wrenches)
    • Giant (Socket Wrenches)

    Kilborn & Bishop Co. (New Haven, CT) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Saxon (DOE Wrenches)
    • K & B (Chisels)
    • Silex (Chisels)
    • Reliance (Pliers - slip joint, 2 wire cutters, milled jaws)
    • Combination (Pliers - ebonized metal combos)

    King Tool Co. (Asbury Park, NJ) - On December 5, 1921, the company's founders hold a public meeting discussing the marketing of the Onli-1 wrench to the public.  By 1927, the company appears to have folded. 

    Onli-1 wrench advertisement from 1922.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Onli-1 (Wrenches)

    Klein, M & Sons (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Man on Telephone Pole (First use 1/1/1911)
    • Klein Koat (Pliers)
    • Klein-Kord (Pliers) (First use 5/5/1933)
    • Klein-Lok (Linesmen's Pliers) (First use 12/8/1933)
    • Klein Line (Pliers)
    • Grip-It (Chain & Strap Wrenches)
    • Goehst Insulation Cutters (Pliers/wire insulation slitter)

    Klose Wrench Company (Minneapolis, MN) - Incorporated 7/11/1895.  Incorporators are Russell M. Bennett, Levi Loren Longbrake, Norman C. Richardson, and Karl A. Klose. 

    Karl August Klose Patent #542,265 - Pipe Wrench

    DATAMP Karl Klose Patents

    Kraeuter & Co. (Newark, NJ) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Kraeuter (Pliers) (First use 1910)
    • Victor (Alligator Wrenches, Pliers, Screwdriver Bits)
    • Dreadnaught (Pliers)
    • Gripall (Pliers)
    • Grip-It (Pliers)
    • Grip-Tite (Pliers)
    • Kwi-Kut (Chisels)
    • Universal (Pliers #305 combination)

    Kraeuter & Co Assigned Patents

    Arthur Kraeuter Patents

    Key Tool Stamping Terms (stamped/forged into tools):

    • K-Diamond

    Kroeschell Bros. Co. (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Ideal (Pipe Wrenches)

    L. A. Sayre & Son (Newark, NJ) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (Pliers)

    La Grippe Wrench Company (Battle Creek, MI) - incorporated 9/21/1900 by: Carl F. Beach - Chairman, Arthur B. Williams - Sec, Erasmus D. Beach - Treas, Julia E. Clark - Manager, D. Lyman Reade - Manager.  The factory and equipment were sold at auction in February of 1906.

    Lake Superior Wrench Company (Sault Sainte Marie, MI) - Incorporated 1/1/1910 by John Beaulieu - Pres., James R. Ryan - Sec/Treas.  However, we do find the company in January of 1909 advertising their wrench. 

    DATAMP Patents for the company.

    Lakeside Forge Co. (Erie, PA) - Charter issued on 6/20/1911.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    ------ Go here for company history

    Lambert Wrench Company (Chicago, IL)

    Lamson & Sessions Co. (Cleveland, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Buckeye (Wrenches)

    Larco Wrench & Manufacturing Co. (Chicago, IL) - In 1920 the company received the trademark for LARCO.  Registration #131,336 (not found).

    Larco Advertisement from June, 1921.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Speednut (Adjustables)

    Lectrolite Corp. (Defiance, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • True-Fit (Wrenches)
    • S-K - Lectrolite (Most tools)
    • Lectromium (Wrench)

    ​------ Go here for Research & History

    Liberty Chuck & Wrench Company (NJ) ca. 1904 - Charter revoked on 1/2/1906 for 2 years consecutive not paying state taxes.  The company appears to have purchased a factory in Middleton, CT in 1902 and it was foreclosed on in 1904.

    Lind Universal Tool Co. (Providence, RI) - Incorporated January 17, 1908 as reported in Industry Week, January 30,1908 by Walter V. McGinn and Byron Rose.  On June 10, 1910 the company was dissolved.  

    James G. Lind - Patent #826,728 - Pipe Wrench (Canadian Patent #CA106,888)

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Lind Universal (Pipe Wrenches)

    The L. L. Lord Co. (Meadville, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Lord (Ratchets)

    L & L Manufacturing Co. (Newark, NJ) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Slot Lock (Adjustables)

    Little's Automatic Wrench Company (Cresson, PA) - Chartered 6/4/1912.  The 1/3/1913 edition of the Altoona Tribune reports that Little's wrench is being manufactured by the expanding Monarch Works.  The article notes the inventor as W. A. Little.  It is patent #1,029,074.

    Lockhart Wrench Co. - DATAMP reports Patent #725,103 for a chain pipe wrench by Richard James Lockhart was produced by the company.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Lockhart (Pipe Wrenches)

    Lorain Wrench Co. (Elyria, OH) - Incorporated 9/29/1887 - Destroyed by fire 5/25/1899. 

    DATAMP Patents for Lorain Wrench Co., both patented by A. D. Gates.  Patent #396,751 for a wrench attachment by Charles F. Laganke and Thomas E. Gawn was also assigned to Lorain Wrench Co.  Canadian Patent #28,873 by Alfonso D. Gates was also assigned to Lorain Wrench.

    Losee Wrench Works (Corey, PA)  ​- J. A. Losee.  Bankruptcy in May of 1911. 

    Jesse A. Losee Patent #864,659 - Wrench

    Lovell Wrench Co. (Worcester, MA) ca. 1897 - DATAMP patents for Lovell Wrench Co., both by Albert Kingman Lovell. 

    We also found Patent #476,767 - Wrench by Mr. Lovell. 

    A google search for Mr. Lovell patents reveals him a prolific inventor.

    October 22, 1896 article on the improved Lovell Bicycle Wrench in Iron Age.

    Lowell Wrench Co. (Lowell, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Automobile (Ratchet)
    • Multiplex (Ratchet)
    • Red Face (Ratchet)
    • Red Socket (Ratchet)

    Lownes Novelty & Wrench Works (Huntsville, AL) ​- Organized by Phineas William Lownes in 1891 to produce his wrench under Patent #446,220.

    Lynds Wrench Company (Wilmington, DE) - Incorporated 12/19/1919 by Martin E. Smith, M. E. Doto, and Artemus Smith.  Another article from 1/13/1920 in Muskogee, OK announces that J. H. Lynds of Muskogee invented a wrench and Incorporated the company in DE.  It notes the wrenches will be produced in Chicago and that J. H. Lynds is Pres, A. J. Rotenberry is Treas, and M. O. Lynds is Sec.   

    Jesse H. Lynds Patent #1,284,731 - Wrench.

    Jesse H. Lynds Patent #1,359,403 - Wrench

    J. W. Mahlon & Company (New York, NY) ​-

    Article about the Mahlon wrench from 1871 based on James W. Mahlon Patent #118,619 - Wrench

    The Mason Tool and Wrench Company (Chicago, IL)  ​-​ The July 1, 1906 Cycle and Automobile Trade Journal  has an article on the Noyes Wrench, and notes it's manufacturer as the Mason Tool and Wrench Company of Chicago.  Charles H. Noyes Patent #819,246 - Wrench.

    James and M. M. Maher Chain Tongue and Wrench Company (Liverpool, OH) - Incorporated 11/5/1913 by James Maher.

    James Maher Pipe, Tongs and Wrench Company (Delaware, OH) - The July, 1918 edition of Mill Supplies announces the incorporation of the company in Wheeling, WV.  Incorporators are listed as M. E. McComb, S. M. Noyes, and L. B. Sorge. 

    A notice in Machinery of December, 1920 announces the incorporation.  Officers are James Maher - Pres., M. G. Williamson - Treas./Sec., and G. A. Yocke - GM.

    Greene (also Green) Wrench Company (Marshall, MI) - Reports new equipment being installed in their new factory on South Jefferson St. 1/10/1923.  Officers reported are Paul Greene - Pres., C. C. Cortright - VP, Charles C. Smith - GM / Treas., and John Paul Jones - Sec.

    Maxson & Maxson Co. (West Edmeston, NY) - Listed in a directory in 1915 only.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • M & M (Pliers)

    Mayhew Steel Products Inc. (Includes H. H. Mayhew Co.) (Shelbourne Falls, MA) - According to many sources, H. H. Mayhew succeeded the H. S. Shepardson Company in 1866.  We have found no official records to support this.  H. S. Shepardson was a prolific inventor of braces, brace bits and particularly, locks and lock mechanisms.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Black Forged (Hammers)
    • Bull Dog (Punches)
    • Cats Paw (Punches, Awls, Picks, etc.)
    • D.M.T (Hammers)
    • Dominator (Pry Bars, Scrapers, Awls, Picks, etc.)
    • Monarch (Punches, Screwdrivers)
    • Maydole (Hammers)
    • Maydox (Hammers)
    • Mayhew (Punches) (First use "At Least" 1895)
    • Norwich (Hammers)
    • Octole (sp) (Hammers)
    • Old Forge Tools (First use 3/1/1989)
    • Peerless (Punches, Screwdrivers)
    • Perpetuo (Screwdrivers)
    • Pilot Punch (Spring Roll Punch)
    • Sureforce (Clamps)

    McKaig Drop Forge Co. (Buffalo, NY) - We have not found the formation announcement for this company.  Interestingly, we find this company beginning in 1912, advertising the Sure-Cutter Pliers patented by Mr. McKaig.  A 1921 Engineering Directory lists McKaig Drop Forge (wrenches) and McKaig-Hatch (forgings & pliers).

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • McKaig's (Adjustables)
    • Sure-Cutter (Pliers) - (1912 advertisement) - Archibald McKaig Sr. - Patent #1,116,093 - Pliers

    McKaig-Hatch Inc. (Buffalo, NY) - In October of 1913, The Iron Age reports the formation of the company by Archibald McKaig - Pres., Chauncey R. Hatch - Treas./Sec., and Harry C. Young - VP.  This announcement from Industrial World of June, 1913 omits Mr. Young and names Frank S. Leary.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (Pliers)

    ​McKercher Wrench & Tool Company (Jackson, MI)  ​- Incorporated 3/20/1902

    Meadville Wrench Co. (Meadville, PA) - Seriously damaged by fire 1/30/1919

    Edward C. Smith Patent #1,313,345 - Machine for Forming Wrench Heads - Assigned to Meadville Wrench. // Link to an article about the machine.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Meadville (Adjustables)

    Mechanics Tool Co. (Rockford, IL) - In November of 1929, it is reported that Eric S. Ekstrom is President.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (DOE Wrenches)

    Mechanics Tool & Forge Co. (Sabina, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • MAC (All Tools)

    -----Go here for company research

    Michigan Motor Specialties Co. (Detroit, MI) - This article on the company from the December, 1916 edition of Michigan Manufacture and Financial Record notes that the company was organized 3 years prior, placing its formation in 1913.  However, a newspaper article from August, 1912 announces an increase in capital from $20k to $75k.  Another article from June, 1915 notes the expansion to 4x the space in the company's rented area of the Colwell Lead Company.  On 6/6/1922 the bankruptcy sale of the company is announced.

    July 1913 article from the Electrical Record on "Becco" branded products. 

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Becco (Wrenches, motor car parts)

    Middlesex Wrench Company (Hartford, CT) - Incorporated 3/23/1880 by: Oren S. Knapp, Stillman H. Liboy, and Alphonso H. Carvill.  A May 27, 1880 announcement notes a petition for name change to the Prouty Press Company.  In July of 1905 the Prouty Press Company is listed in a page full of "defunct companies" for the state of CT.

    Milwaukee Tool & Forge (Milwaukee, WI) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • True-Fit

       Contract Production For:

    • Blue Point

    -----Go here for company information

    Modern Sales Bureau (Chicago, IL) - Earliest mention for Mesnard pliers is in an April, 1911 edition of The Automobile Trade Directory.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    Monarch Wrench Works / Monarch Tool Works / Monarch Wrench Company / Monarch Tool Company (St. Louis, MO)​ - We find the incorporation announced for the Monarch Tool Company on 10/26/1886 by John H. Peizer, E. L. Hall and L. M. Hall.  By 1905, the Monarch Tool Company is listed as being located in Cincinatti, OH (could be a different company). 

    The July 5, 1906 edition of American Machinist shows an advertisements for the Monarch adjustable alligator wrench.  The advertisements notes the wrench is sold by the Monarch Wrench Company, successor to the Monarch Tool Works.  A 1907 advertisement names H. F. Reddig as "manager."

    Advertisements show a patent year on the shank of the wrench of 1901.

    Advertisement from a 1907 edition of Railway Master Mechanic.

    Monte Wrench Company (Shelbyville, IN) - On 3/13/1908, local papers announce the change of name from the Vandergrift Manufacturing Company (Shelby County, IN) to the Monte Wrench Company.  The company was likely formed by Horace G. Montgomery.  Dissolved 1/24/1925.

    Montgomery Ward Sub Brands

    • Eclipse
    • Lakeside
    • Master Quality
    • Powr-Kraft
    • Riverside

    Moore Drop Forging Co. (Springfield, MA) Contract Production for

    • Sears-Craftsman
    • Dunlap
    • Ford

       Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    Moore Products Company (Wichita, KS) - Founded approximately mid-1919 and incorporated on April 29, 1920, based on a patent by Frederick A. Moore - Patent #1,303,709 - Wrench.  Frederick A. Moore - Pres., George W. Lane - VP, and J. D. Moore - Sec/Treas. 

    The tool was to be marketed as the 'Moore Common Sense Pipe & Monkey Wrench."  However, according to a January, 1921 newspaper article, Mr. Moore spend most of his time selling stock in his company and in over a year had only manufactured $7.50 worth of product.  His stockholders were not amused and sued him out of business.  Here is a link to the earliest newspaper advertisement we were able to locate.

    Morgan Wrench Company (Hamburgh, NY) ca. 1898

    Morrow Wrench Company Inc. (Hammondsport, NY) - Incorporated 7/23/1927 by Nelson H. Wood, Victor E. Masson, and Edwin J. Van Gordon.

    Motor Parts Co. (Boston, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Auto-Cle (Ratchet, Sockets)
    • Titus-Cle (Ratchet, Sockets)

    Mound Tool & Scraper Co. (St. Louis, MO) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Mound (Chisels)

    M. W. Robinson Co. (New York, NY) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Carll (Wrenches)

    Neal Universal Wrench Company - Incorporated 4/29/1899 by Raymond Pease Smith of New Land Ct., and Joseph H. Reall of NYC.

    Neverslip Wrench Company, Inc. (Wilmington, DE?) - Incorporated 2/22/1923 (DE) by Fred F. Teno and Reed W. Smith of Harrison, NY, Edward G. Wescott of Pitman, NJ.

    New Britain Machine Company (New Britain, CT) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Mustang (First use 1954 - Last use circa 1972)
    • None Better (First Use 1917 - Last use circa 1952)
    • NB (stylized without circle) (First use 1919)
    • Husky (First use 1/29/1924)
    • Blackhawk
    • NB (Circle)
    • Pick-Up (Wrench)

       Contract Production for

    • Sears - Craftsman Circle H (Sockets, Drive Tools, Ratchets)
    • Sears - Craftsman BE (Sockets, Drive Tools, Ratchets)
    • NAPA
    • MAC (Ratchets, Automatic Transmission Tools)
    • MATCO (Ratchets)
    • Penncraft (JC Penny)
    • Owatonna Tool Co. (OTC)
    • American Forge
    • Powerkraft

        NB Ratchet Production Brands List (As of 7/13/2016) (K) = Kilness Patent; (F) = Fors Patent; (C) = Costello Patent **Courtesy of work & collection by Powderkeg**

    • American Forge (K)
    • Billings (F)
    • Blackhawk (F, K)
    • Bluegrass (F, K)
    • Champion Plugmaster (K)
    • Craftsman (C, F)
    • Crescent (K)
    • Fairmount (F)
    • Filson (F)
    • Giller (K)
    • Husky (C, F, K)
    • K. R. Wilson (F)
    • JS (K)
    • Litton (K)
    • Mac (K)
    • Master Mechanic (K)
    • Matco (K)
    • Mustang (F, K)
    • NBM (K)
    • New Britain (C, F, K)
    • None Better (C, F)
    • OTC (K)
    • Penncraft (K)
    • Precision-Bilt (F)
    • Proto Challenger (K)
    • SP 45 (K)
    • Sparta (K)
    • Thorsen (K)
    • "unbranded" (K)
    • Vlchek (C)
    • Wardmaster (F)
    • Wix (F)

    New England Pressed Steel Co. (Natick, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (DOE Wrenches)

    Niagara Falls Metal Stamping Works (Niagara Falls, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Pokitrenchiz (Wrenches)

    Niagara Metal Stamping Corp. (Niagara Falls, NY) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Premax (Wrenches)

    Niagara Wrench Company (Niagara Falls, NY) - Incorporated by John Farnsworth, Silvanus Hussey, H. L. Greg, George B. L. Wilson, and Albert L. Wilson in late July, 1893

    ​Niagara Wrench & Tool Company (Blasdell, NY) ​ca. 1896

    Nilson Walters Wrench Company (Casselton, ND) ca. 1903

    Nonpareil Pipe Wrench Co. (Springfield, MO) - William P. Collins ca. 1895

    North Brothers Manufacturing Co. (Philadelphia, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Yankee (Spiral Screwdrivers, Ratcheting Drivers)

    The North Star Wrench Company (St. Paul, MN) - Incorporated 6/13/1904 by R. B. Higbee, Thomas L. Billingsley, and Frank H. Griggs.  Possibly Frederick Hachmann Patent #775,398 - Assigned 1/3 to L. H. Stiles (Red Wing, MN) - 4/6/1904.  2 other Hachmann patents in 1904 were fractionally assigned to Thomas L. Billingsley

    Norwalk Wrench Company (Phoenix, AZ) - Incorporated 7/17/1906 by H. E. Dennison, William E. Dennis, and Frederic Norwood.

    Novel Wrench Company (Philadelphia, PA) - ca. early 1890's

    The Novelty Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Reported as a "new Company" September, 1886.  Newspaper states the manufacture Bradley's Adjustable Carriage Wrench.

    Noyes Wrench Company (Omaha, NE?) - Incorporated ca. 6/1907 by LeRoy C. Brown, Samuel Barrett, and Charles H. Noyes.

    Oakes Pressed Steel Co. (Indianapolis, IN) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (DOE Wrenches)

    Offset Handle Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Incorporated 2/24/1905 by George W. Bird, John W. Alderman, and Charles F. Templeton.

    Ohio Automobile & Wrench Company (Cleveland, OH) ca. 1900

    Oliver-Barth Jack Co. (Milwaukee, WI) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Oliver (Adjustables)

    O'Mullins Quick Adjustable Wrench Company (Terre Haute, IN) - Incorporated 4/30/1914 by John N. White, Ollie O'Mullins, Herman Harms ("and others")  - Ollie Mullins Patent #1,083,851 - Wrench

    Oswego Tool Co. (Oswego, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Giles (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Oswego Standard (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Stillson Pattern (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Pease Design (Pliers)

    Owatonna Tool Co. (Owatonna, MI) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • OTC (Most Tools)

    P Lowentrant Mfg. Co. (Newark, NJ) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • U.S. (Wrenches, Pipe Wrenches, Pliers)

    Packer Auto Specialty Co. (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Ray (Ratchet, Sockets)

    Page Storms Drop Forge Co. (Chicopee, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • P. S.  (Wrenches, Alligator Wrenches)

    Panama Wrench Company (CA) ​- ca. 4/1916

    Parmelee Wrench Co. (Chicago, IL) - This company was likely formed in the late 1890s by Justin Parmelee.  On April 4, 1909, Domestic Engineering reports the passing of Justin Parmelee, then President of the company.  A March, 1914 wedding announcement identifies Roy Parmelee (Justin's son) as President of the company.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Parmelee (Pipe Wrenches, Ratchets, Socket Wrenches)

    Note that Homer has an earlier "Design Patent," #17,614 for a steam radiator that is assigned to Bartlett, Hayward & Co.  Homer also patented an improved method for molding pipes in 1860, Patent #29,908.  Homer also patented a machine for winding / twisting fibers, Patent #56,258.

    Homer Parmelee (Baltimore) Patent #379,123 - Pipe Wrench - Unassigned

    Homer Parmelee (Philadelphia) Patent #590,853 - Pipe Wrench - Unassigned

    Homer Parmelee (Chicago) Patent #648,706 - Pipe Wrench - Assigned to Justin Parmele

    Roy Parmelee (Chicago) Patent #871,436 - Pipe Wrench - Assigned to Parmele Wrench Co.

    Roy Parmelee (Chicago) Patent #1,336,754 - Pipe Vise - Self Assigned

    Roy Parmelee (Chicago) Patent #1,336,755 - Pipe Vise - Self Assigned

    Patterson, Gottfried & Hunter, Ltd. (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Ellis (Pipe Wrenches)

    Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co. (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Pexto (in circle) (Wrenches, Pliers, Hatchets, Hammers) (First use 6/5/1914) // Pexto (in circle [2]) PEXTO (block, no circle)
    • Samson (Brace)
    • Mekanik

    Perfection Wrench Co. (Port Chester, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Perfection (Adjustables)

    Pittsburgh Automatic Wrench Company (Pittsburgh, PA) - Incorporated 7/8/1904 by George H. Corey, Eugene Schooley, and J. L. Cohencious.  Plant closed down and all contents sold on June 28, 1906.

    Plomb Tool Co. (Anaheim, CA) Sub Brands: / Trade Names / Trademarks

       * Penens Corp (Los Angeles, CA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Challenger (~1953 - 1975) (Under Challenger Tool Co. [Div. Ingersoll Rand] from ~1966)
    • Fleet (~1963 - 1977) (Under Fleet Tool Co. [Div. Ingersoll Rand] from ~1970)
    • Fleet Quality Tools (First Use 8/29/1947)
    • Socketeer (Socket Wrench Sets) (First 3/31/1954)

       Contract Production for

    • Vlchek
    • Air Force "WF"
    • Bell Systems
    • ArtCraft (Pep Boys) (Ratchet, Drive Tools)
    • Mastercraft (Coast-to-Coast Stores)

      * Fleet Tool Corp. (Schiller Park, Ill) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Fleet (First use on wrenches 8/1/1947) (Registered 1965)

    Pollock Automatic Wrench Company (Des Moines, IA)

    Portsmouth Wrench Company (South Elliot, ME) - Organized March 24, 1884 C. E. Cushing - Pres.  Always Ready Wrench

    Potter Mfg. Co. (Boston, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Union (Pipe Wrenches)

    Providence Auto Equipment Co. (Providence, RI) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Keystone (Wrenches)

    Quality Tools Co / Old Forge Tools (New Wilmington, PA) - Contract Production For:

    • MATCO
    • MAC
    • Cornwell
    • New Britain

    Quick Acting Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) - Incorporated 6/27/1901 by Charles D. Albert, J. E. Talfer, and Z. C. Shaw (another paper notes H. C. Shaw).

    Racine Wrench Company (Racine, WI) - place into receivership late October, 1893.  F. M. Knapp appointed receiver.

    Rasnick Wrench Corporation (Clintwood, VA) - Incorporated 11/1/1907 by J. K. Damron - Pres., W. H. Rouse - VP, R. E. Chase - Secretary.  Organized to produced a wrench patented by Noah W. Rasnick - Patent #850,315 - Wrench - Self Assigned.  This company does appear in Virginia's 1912 list of corporations but there is no indication the wrench was produced.

    Ratchet Wrench Company (York Springs, PA) - building factory 10/1887, Chartered 5/7/1888.

    Red Chief Mfg. Co. (Louisville, KY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • L. G. (Adjustables)

    Reed Manufacturing Co. (Erie, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Tiger Standard (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Reed (Pliers, DOE Wrenches)

    Republic Auto Parts Co. (Long Island City, NY) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Humboldt (Wrenches)
    • Sterling (Wrenches)

    R. F. Sedgley (Philadelphia, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • K & S (Wrenches)
    • Hexall (Wrenches)

    Richards-Wilcox Mfg. Co. (Aurora, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Wizard (Ratchets, Adjustables)

    Ripley Pipe Wrench Co. Sub Brands

    • Leader (Pipe Wrenches

    ​Robbins, Gamwell & Co. (Pittsfield, MA) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Robbins (Chain Pipe Wrench)​

    The Robinson Wrench Company (Middlefield, OH) - Incorporatedc 9/21/1921 by Charles Wilkerson, Harry A., Donald E., and Harry A. Wilkerson Jr., and Paul King.

    Roren Drop Forging Co. Inc. (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Bullard (Pipe Wrenches, Pliers)

    Ross Gear & Tool Co. Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Headson (Pipe Wrenches)

    Russel Wrench Company (Cleveland, OH) ca. 1883 - Noah R. Steiner (also reported as Stiner) - Sec

    Russell Wrench & Novelty Co. (Creston, OH) ca. 1882

    S & A Manufacturing Co. (Boston, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Quixet (Wrenches)

    Samson Wrench Company (La Crosse, WI) - Incorporated 1/21/1925 by George W. Kelley, Louis R. Corbell, and Lloyd O. Benoit

    Scholler Manufacturing Co., Inc. (Buffalo, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Scholler (Adjustables)

    The William Schollhorn Co. (New Haven, CT) - Incorporated in 1891 as a "Hardware Manufacturer."  In 1896 they filed a patent infringement suit against the Bridgeport Hardware Manufacturing Co. regarding shear and punch designs.  In 1899 they sold the hand shear part of their business to The National Shear Company.  They appear to have remained in business until at least the late 1940's.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (Pliers)

    DATAMP Patents assigned to the William Schollhorn Co.

    S & I Co. (Springfield, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Never Break (Screwdrivers)
    • Reliable (Screwdrivers)
    • Rival (Screwdrivers)

    Sherman-Klove Tools (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

       Contract Production for

    • Hinsdale (sockets - unproven)
    • Kraeuter (Ratchets, sockets)
    • Sears - Craftsman (Circle K 3/4 drive Ratchet, sockets)
    • Sears - Fulton (Sockets, Drive Tools)
    • Gambles Artisan (Sockets, Drive Tools)
    • MAC (Ratchets)
    • Western Giant (Ratchets)

    Key Tool Stamping Terms (stamped/forged into tools):

    • Alloy (S-K Lectrolite, S-K Tools RP, S-K Wayne RP, S-K RP, S-K Tools Line Wrenches)
    • Chrome Vanadium Steel (S-K Diamond RP Wrenches)

    Sears Roebuck Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Craftsman
    • Cross Country
    • Dunlap
    • Fulton
    • Merit

    Self-Adjusting Tool and Wrench Company (Oakland, CA?) - 6/1/1924 - "Newly formed."  Wrenches to be produced by the Safe-Wheel Company Inc. of Oakland.  Officers at the time are D. E. Bohannon - Pres., C. S. Crellin - VP, J. H. Vockrill - Sec./Treas., and Dan Van Wagenen - GM.

    Serve-U-Wrench Company (Cleveland, OH) - Incorporated 5/22/1928 by Bernard A. Kellish, O. J. Kellish, and Ray Cramer

    Sherman-Klove (La Grange & Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Lectrolite
    • Tiger Tools (Gambles)
    • S-K (First use 12/1932)
    • S-K Chrome
    • Chrome Alloy (Contract production sockets)
    • S-K Tools (No first use listed, awarded 1934)
    • Artisan (Socket sets)
    • S-K Wayne
    • S-K Lectrolite
    • Brazil

    Contract Production For:

    • MAC Tools (Ratchets)
    • Sears - Fulton (Socket Sets)
    • Sears - Craftsman Circle K (Mainly 3.4" drive tools, some 1/2" drive)
    • Gambles

    Sixteen to One Wrench Company (Indianapolis, IN) - Incorporated 3/30/1899

    Smith & Hemenway Co. (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Red Devil (Pliers)
    • Yemco (Adjustables)
    • Imco (Pliers)

    Snap-On (Kenosha, WI) - Chartered to do business in Texas 10/21/1924.  2/4/1923 Newspaper article announcing "Blue Point" cold chisels.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Blue Point
    • Par-X
    • Octo-Grip

       Contract Production for

    • Sears - Craftsman (C Series Ratchets, Possibly Sockets)
    • Ingersoll-Rand (Impact Sockets)

    ​South Bend Wrench & Tool Company (South Bend, IN)  ​- ca. 1922

    Spring Wrench Company (Chicago, IL) ca. 1903

    Stadeker Metal Specialty Co. (Chicago, IL) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Stadco (Wrenches)

    Staff Brothers Co. (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Staff (Adjustables)

    Standard Nipple & Tool Co. (West Newton, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Duplex (Pipe Wrenches)

    Standard Wrench & Tool Co. (Providence, RI) - Bankrupt ca. November, 1913

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Fit-Z-all (Adjustable)
    • Fitzall (Wrenches)

    Stanley Tools (Includes Stanley Rule & Level and all other division/iterations) (New Britain, CT) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Hercules (Screwdrivers)
    • Stanley-Atha (Hammers)
    • Hurwood (Screwdrivers)

    Star Mfg. Co. (Carpentersville, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Star (Pipe Wrenches)

    Star Wrench Company (St. Louis, MO) - Incorporated 9/14/1895.  Incorporators are L. M. Friedy, J. W. Donnell, and C. Friedy.

    Sterling Tool & Wrench Company (Sterling, IL) - Article from 2/23/1904 notes several officers resigned at a board meeting held the prior evening.

    Sterling Wrench Company (Sterling & Findlay, OH) Moved from Sterling to Findlay in March of 1888.  Sold out to "Eastern Parties" and the company will move to Akron.  Article states they wil also dispose of all wrench patents.  The company will be renamed to The Akron Tool Company - 9/18/1889

    Stevenson Wrench Company (Cecil County, DE) Incorporated 7/12/1896 by George B. Stevenson of NJ, and George W. Cosdan, James Mallen, Charles H. Squier, John S. Simcoe, Andrew Anderson, Theodore J. Abrams, William Thomas Hammond, and John W. Falls of Cecil County  - closed August 1897 (may have moved to MD in April of 1897).  Sold at auction 2/19/1898.  This 1892 Stevenson patent is likely the impetus for the company. 

    Stewart Wrench & Manufacturing Company (NY) - Incorporated 3./4/1908 by Harry T. Wilson, Vernon B. Crounse, and William T. Ryan. 

    David Stewart Patent #892,326 - Nut & Pipe Wrench - Assigned to Stewart Wrench. 

    David Stewart Patent #892,327 - Nut & Pipe Wrench - Assigned to Stewart Wrench.

    P A Sturtevant Co. (Addison, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    Contract Production For:

    • Plomb Tool Co.
    • Bonney Forge & Tool
    • Owatonna Tool Co.
    • Herbrand Tools

    Paul A. Sturtevant Patents

    Paul Sturtevant applied for his first torque wrench related patent in November of 1938.  The website for Sturtevant Richmont (current company) states he started the P. A. Sturtevant Co. in 1940.  We have yet to discover a notice of formation.

    The assignments page for the Sturtevant trademark is interesting because it lists the following "assignees:" P. A. Sturtevant Co., Airetool Mfg. Company, SK Wayne Corp., Waugh Equipment Co, and the last owner (in 1968) was Dresser Industries.

    Superior Wrench Co. (Marshalltown, IA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Superior (Pipe Wrenches)

    Sure Grip Fire Hydrant Wrench Company (Paducah, KY) - Incorporated 9/11/1915 by A. L. Hays, A. N. McKinney, C. H. Gentry and R. M. Hays.

    Syracuse Wrench Co. (Syracuse, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Champion (Wrenches, Ratchets)
    • Yala (Wrenches)
    • Viau's (Pipe Wrenches)

    Thorsen Tool Co. (Emeryville, CA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    Thurston Mfg. Co. (Providence, RI) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Thurston Patent (Pipe Wrenches)

    Toledo Wrench Co. (Toledo, OH) - March, 1884 - considering moving to Indianapolis.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Duquette Two Way (Pipe Wrenches)

    Tower & Lyon Co. (New York, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Involute (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Tower's (DOE Wrenches)

    Trimont Mfg. Co. (Roxbury, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Trimo (Original) // Trimo (Pipe Wrenches, Wrenches, Adjustables) (First use 1/1894)

    Truth Tool Co. (Mankato, MN) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    Contract Production For:

    • Montgomery Wards - Wards Master (Sockets)

    ------See here for company research

    Tuck Manufacturing Co. (Brockton, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Hercules (Screwdrivers)
    • Giant (Screwdrivers

    We found a notice that the factory's foundation had been poured in 1892.  They are mentioned as a "Shoe Tool Manufacturer"  According to Mill Supplies Magazine of July, 1917, the company officers are: Pres - Lon Weston; Treas - Lawrence G. Weston; M. G. Weston.  1917 is the last listing for the company.

    Tudor Mfg. Co. (Taunton, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Bay State (Ratchet)

    Turner & Deegan (Bristol, CT)

    • Turner (Wrenches)

    This text below is from "Bristol Connecticut, in the olden time," from the Internet Archive (click the link and click CTRL F, you will then have to search for Deegan to find it on the page)

    The individual proprietors of the works are; Messrs. Geo. H.
    Turner and Patrick H. Deegan. The business consists of the manufac-
    ture of bit braces, screw drivers and other light hardware. 

    This enterprise was established in March, 1894, at Forestville,
    in the factory known as the old Bit Shop, formerly used for the manu-
    facturing of clocks, and located on the Pequabuck River. They con-
    tinued business in this factory for about five years, when in the spring
    of 1899, March 13, Mr. Deegan, through an accident, received injuries
    from which he died, March 20. 

    Mr. Turner purchased of the estate Mr. Deegan's interest, continuing the business under the firm's name. During this year Mr. Turner purchased of A. H. Warner & Company their water privilege, located in northern part of the town in the village formerly called Polkville, now called Edgewood, and built a new factory and moved into it November of the same year. This gave them more room which they needed in the manufacturing of their goods, which has developed a demand for their products in all parts of the United States and foreign countries.

    Twin Grip Sales Co. (Twin Grip Wrench Company) (New York, NY)

    • Twin (Wrenches)

    References found from 1911 to 1913.

    Two-Way Automatic Wrench Company (St. Louis, MO) - Ordered to stop selling/offering stock in MO on 8/26/1923.  E. E. Gerlinger (Sec./Treas.) noted no wrenches had been sold and they were being manufactured in Chicago.

    Union Hardware Co. (Torrington, CT) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Gem (Adjustables)
    • Champion (Screwdrivers)
    • Valley (Screwdrivers)

    U.S. Ratchet Wrench Co. (Peoria, IL)

    Company first appears in 1908 newspapers looking for local sales reps.  They seem to fade out around 1915.

    United States Vise & Pipe Wrench Co. (Chicago, IL) - Incorporated 10/28/1893 to manufacture and sell iron and steel wares such as vises, wrenches, pipes, etc.  Incorporators are Charles A. Patterson, Andrew Hallner, Claes Roberg, and Adolf F. Bergborn. 

    United States Wrench Company (Washington, DE?) - On 12/1/1928, the factory and contents were sold at public auction.

    Universal Wrench Company (Newark, NJ) - Incorporated 11/20/1912 by Russell D. Clancy, Ransom Y. Boyee, and Alva A. Brown.

    Utica Drop Forge & Tool Co. (Utica, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    Contract Production for

    • Plomb Tool (Adjustables)
    • Montgomery Ward - Master Quality (Pliers)
    • Montgomery Ward - Lakeside (Pliers)

    ------See here for company research

    Utility Wrench Company (New York, NY) - Incorporated June 27, 1885

    Uwanta Wrench Company (Meadville, PA) - ca. 1907 - Doubled it's capital investment in July of 1912.

    Vandergrift-Conger Wrench Company (Shelbeyville, IN) - 12/23/1905 - organized for the purpose of manufacturing the T. F. Vandergrift patented wrenches.

    Vandegrift Wrench Company (Shelbyville, IN) ca. 1904 (factory destroyed by fire in 10/30/1904).  On 3/13/1908, local papers announce the change of name from the Vandergrift Manufacturing Company (Shelby County, IN) to the Monte Wrench Company.

    The Vandergrift Mfg. Co. (Jamestown, NY) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Vandergrift (Pipe Wrenches)

    Here is a nice little story and picture on the company, also known as Blackstone Mfg. Co.

    George Vandergrift Blackstone Patents

    Vandergrift-Conger Wrench Company (Shelbeyville, IN) - 12/23/1905 - organized for the purpose of manufacturing the T. F. Vandergrift patented wrenches.

    Van Doren Mfg. Co. (Chicago Heights, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Vandor (Chisels, Hammers)

    Found references as early as 1909 for the "Tait Tool-Holder."  Latest reference found is 1915.

    Verner Wrench Company (San Fancisco, CA) ca. 1890

    Victor Mfg. Co. (Detroit, MI) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Vimco (Wrenches)

    Vlchek Tool Co. (Cleveland, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Motiv
    • Norivell
    • Vlchek (First use 1/1/1910)
    • Crusader (found in multiple local HW store ads)

       Contract Production for

    • Bonney (Bon-E-Con) (Wrenches)
    • Gamble Auto Supply - Tiger Tools (Wrenches)
    • Montgomery Ward - Master Quality (Wrenches)
    • Sears - Craftsman BT (Ratchets, Hammers)
    • Sears - Dunlap (Wrenches)
    • Sears - Fulton (Wrenches, Pliers)
    • Sears - Merit (Wrenches)
    • SW (Wrenches)
    • Thorsen Speed Hed (Wrenches)
    • Walden (Wrenches)
    • Western Auto - Westcraft (Wrenches)
    • Western Auto - Westline (Wrenches)
    • Western Auto - Wizard (Wrenches)
    • Western Auto - ChromeXQuality (Wrenches, Chisels)

    ------See here for company research

    Wailt Wrench Compony (Wilmington, DE) - Incorporated 10/16/1917 by William F. O'Keefe, George G. Stiegler, and E. E. Wright.

    Walden Mfg. Co. (Worcester, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Walden (Ratchets)
    • Spintite (Nut Drivers) (First use 9/15/1923)
    • Chrome Nickel
    • Boxtite (DBE Wrenches)
    • In-a-Grip (Hex, Set & Cap Screw tools)
    • Starwheel (wrenches)
    • Pony (Small socket sets)

    ------See here for company history

    Walworth Mfg. Co. (Boston, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Genuine Stillson (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Stillson (Pipe Wrenches)
    • Walco Hex (Adjustables)

    Incorporated 2/12/1872 - Here is a link to all business records (acquisitions, etc.).  Reference ALL RECORDS FOR: "Walworth Company," "Walworth Manufacturing Co.," and "Walworth Manufacturing Company" in the link.

    Walworth Mfg. Co. Patents

    Warnock Mfg. Co. (Worcester, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Warnock (Pipe Wrenches, Strap Wrenches)

    Warren Axe & Tool Co. (Warren, PA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • American Stillson (Pipe Wrenches)

    Warren Axe & Tool Patents

    Waterbury Wrench Company (Waterbury, CT) - Organized 11/4/1896.  Destroyed by fire 10/19/1896 (patented bicycle wrench).  In the Journals of Charles Somers Miller there are 2 entries regarding the company.  First on 4/12/1898 he writes that the company has gone into receivership by W. H. Brooks.  Second, on 6/9/1898 the company closed it's doors for good. 

    DATAMP Patent link for their bicycle wrench.

    September, 1896 Iron Age article on the Waterbury wrench.

    Wells Brothers Co. (Division of Greenfield Tap & Die) (Greenfield, MA) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Little Giant (Wrenches, Ratchets)

    Wells Brothers Co. Patents

    Western Auto Sub Brands (OR Sold through Western Auto) / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • ChromeXQuality
    • Chromium Vanadium (Indestro Socket Sets)
    • Master Quality
    • Perfection
    • Western Auto Stores
    • Western Auto - Westcraft
    • Western Auto - Westline
    • Western Auto - Wizard
    • Western Giant
    • Multi-Hex (Hinsdale Wrenches)
    • Obstructo (Herbrand Obstruction Wrenches)

    West Haven Manufacturing Co. (New Haven, CT) Incorporated in 1903 and the company was dissolved in June of 1932. - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Peck's Plier Wrench (Pliers)

    Western Tool & Forge (Brackenridge, PA / Tarentum, PA) - Earliest mention is 1908 at which point this reference states they employed 100 men.  This company originated as the James H. Baker Manufacturing Co.  The James H. Baker Manufacturing Co. was incorporated April 3, 1899.  On 1/4/1902, it is reported in newspapers that Harry W. Armstrong of the Verona Tool Company was elected President of the Baker company.  A note in an August, 1905 newspaper notes that Mr. Baker sold his patent #797,487 for a forging apparatus for $25,000 but it does not indicate to whom it was sold.  Mr. Baker had many patents for wagon brakes, wheels and other parts, as well as forging equipment.  We found many obituaries for him, noting the many companies he was involved with including; Baker Chain & Wagon Iron Mfg. Co. (Pittsburgh), Baker Forge Works (Ellwood City), Oliver Iron & Steel Co. (Pittsburgh), an unnamed wagon and hardware company (Urbana, OH), and "many other interests."

    Western Tool & Forge disappears from magazines and newspapers circa 1921/22. - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Chisels - 1911
    • Hammers - 1911, 1922
    • Wrenches - Double End Adjustable S - 1911
    • Wrenches - Drop Forged - 1911
    • Crowbars - - 1911, 1922

    Whitaker Manufacturing Co. (Chicago, IL) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Whitaker (Adjustables)

    Whitman & Barnes Mfg. Co. (Akron, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Diamond (Chisels)
    • Railroad Special (Adjustables)

    Wilde Tool Co. (Hiawatha, KS) (See Company History Here) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    Contract Production for

    • Sears - Craftsman
    • MAC
    • MATCO
    • ***Possible Truth Tool (Wrenches)

    Froeschl Patents

    Will B. Lane (Unique Tool Co.) (Chicago, IL) - Dates to at least 1909 (earliest reference found in Machinery Magazine).  - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Unique (Wrenches)

    William E. Pratt Manufacturing Co. (Chicago, IL) - Founded in 1893 and acquired by The Joslyn Manufacturing & Supply Co. in June of 1940. - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Superior (Adjustables)

    William E. Rosel Co. (Columbus, OH) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • 5 in 1 (Wrenches)

    William Johnson Co. (Newark, NJ) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (Pliers)

    The William Schollhorn Co. (New Haven, CT) - Incorporated in September, 1891 as a "Hardware Manufacturer."  In 1896 they filed a patent infringement suit against the Bridgeport Hardware Manufacturing Co. regarding shear and punch designs.  In 1899 they sold the hand shear part of their business to The National Shear Company.  They appear to have remained in business until at least the late 1940's.

    William Alexander Bernard was a prolific inventor for the Schollhorn company.

    DATAMP Patents assigned to the William Schollhorn Co.

    Google Patents assigned to the William Schollhorn Co.

    Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (Pliers)

    Williams & Davis Wrench Company (Kelvin, AZ) - Organized ca. 4/1907 by Frank Williams, Thomas Kavanaugh and Charles Cutting.  Manufacturing to take place "in an eastern city." 

    This company was formed to manufacture Patent #825,874 - Wrench by Frank Williams and John Davis of Kelvin, AZ.  It is unlikely this wrench was ever produced (at least by this company) as the formation notice is the only reference found.

    Worcester Pressed Steel Co. (Worcester, MA) - Founded in 1883 by Edmund Converse as The Worcester Ferrule & Manufacturing Co.  In 1904 the company was taken over by Milton P. Higgins and reformed as The Worcester Pressed Steel Co.  Go here to see a nice history and picture of the plant from circa 1910.  -  Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • -- (Pliers)

    Wright Tool & Forge (Barberton, OH) - Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Bobcat

       Contract Production For:

    • MATCO (Ratchets, 3/4 Drive Sockets)
    • MAC (Ratchets, Specialty Sockets)
    • Bluegrass

    ------Go here for Company history

    The Wright Wrench & Forging Co. (Canton, OH) Sub Brands / Trade Names / Trademarks

    • Stover (Pipe Wrenches)
    • -- (Pliers)

    This is the text from the company formation announcement from the publication Industrial World, August, 1909 from the Internet Archives:

    Wright Wrench Manufacturing Company. Canton; capital, $150,000; manufacturing tools, implements, wrenches, etc.,; James F. Wright, Harry C. Haight, Henry C. Milligan, Thomas F. Turner and M. C. Barbery. 

    At some point in 1910, the company changed their name to the Wright Wrench & Forging Co.  We also found an article from 1910 mentioning that William B Haight was co-owner of the company with his brother.  Interestingly, this same article notes the sale of 35,000 wrenches to Russia.

    The company seems to disappear circa 1915.

    Here is a brief article with pictures regarding the Wright Auto Wrench.

    The York Wrench Company (Duluth, MN) - Incorporated 4/25/1921 by George O'Haire - Pres., John Wahl - VP, and J. W. Hunt - Sec.

    Yount Wrench Company (Crawfordsville, IN) - ca. 1896


    Utica Drop Forge & Tool Research

    Utica was formed in 1895, probably September.  The following three articles announce the formation of the company, the officers, the purchase of right to patented pliers, etc.

    Early tools (Pre-1911 - triple diamond trademark) should be marked (based on advertisements from that period) with "UDF&T" or "Utica Drop Forge & Tool Company."

    UDF was founded to manufacture a complete line of nippers and pliers.  They purchased their tools and machinery from the Interchangeable Tool Company formerly of Boonton, NJ.

    Officers at founding (Iron Age - April link above) were:

    • William Pierrepont White - President (Director of Second National Bank of Utica)
    • Charles A Miller - VP (attorney and counselor for the Savings Bank of Utica)
    • Hugh White - Secretary & Treasurer
    • John P. Campbell - (Superintendent of the NY Mills Company)
    • Frederick S. Kellogg - (VP of C. C. Kellogg & Sons Co.)
    • Fred C. McClary - Superintendent / Director
    • H. Lawrance Wright - Assistant Superintendent / Director

    Interestingly, the Democrat and Chronicle newspaper of Rochester, NY reported the new company on December 6, 1895 with the following principals:

    • William M. White
    • C. C. Kellogg
    • T. R. Proctor
    • H. L. White
    • John P. Campbell

    On 25 June, 1907, the Wilkes-Barre Times reported an extensive fire at the UDF factory causing an estimated $100,000 in damage.  Most other newspapers reported the loss at $200,000.

    14 August 1909 - James S. Sherman is VP

    In 1936, the company reorganized as the Utica Drop Forge & Tool Corporation and added wrenches to their prolific line of pliers.

    1939 - Frank P. Tenney is VP

    March 1955, Willis V. Daugherty is President of UDF

    June/July 1956 - Kelsey-Hayes Wheel purchases the majority stock of Utica Drop Forge.  On 1 August of 1956, Kelsey-Hayes announces the completion of the acquisition.

    February 1962 - Kelsey-Hayes moves UDF operations to Orangeburg, SC

    March 1963 - Kelsey-Hayes splits off it's tool division and renames it to "Utica Drop Forge & Herbrand Tool Division."

    Vise & Wrench Inventor - John R. Long

    On this page will present the history, as best can be determined, of prolific inventor John R. Long of Akron, OH.  (John Reeves Long) Given the commonality of his name, we are having difficulty finding records of his life.  We believe John Reeves Long was born in Columbus City, MD on 2/25/1867 to James T. Long and Margaret Putt.  However, we find a John R. Long in the 1930 census, whose listed occupation is Inventor, living in Los Angeles, CA.  This record shows his birthplace as Indiana in 1868.  A couple interesting notes about this census record: first, it says he never attended school; second, it also indicates he married Kittie when he was 45 and she was just 18.  It lists two children in 1930, George (15) and Bettie (12).  In the 1938 Los Angeles city directory John is listed as a Pattern Maker.

    Mr. Long founded / co-founded multiple companies throughout his career, many of which are documented here, and we're sure many yet to be discovered.

    Mr. Long's first patent was for weather stripping in 1891.  In 1895, he invented a Truck, very similar to moving dolly / hand truck today, with an arm to capture/hold the object being moved.

    In 1901 he really got to work focusing more on the tool industry.  Mr. Long invented a Brick Pressing Machine, a Trap Gun, and 4 vises.

    An article appearing in a 9/11/1901 newspaper notes that a company is to be formed to manufacture the Brick Pressing Machine.  The article states that the patent has been acquired by Messrs. Humphry & Humphry of Akron.  The company is to be organized by Mr. Byron M. Allison.

    In 1902 he continued on his run of vise inventions by patenting 2 bench vises and one pipe vise.

    1903 brought a whirlwind of vises with patents for 3 Vises, 3 Pipe Vises, and a Bench Vise.

    He appears to have taken a break in 1904 and 1905, where newspaper articles indicate he was busy marketing his previous vise inventions, predominately in the Warren, PA area.  However, articles explaining the marketing of the vises, and the seeking of a manufacturing location in Decatur, IL, Iowa, Kansas and Missouri.

    An article in a 1/5/1905 newspaper in Peoria, IL is seeking mechanics, noting that the Peoria Steel & Tool Company has purchased the automatic vise and tool business from J. R. Long of Akron, OH and desire to manufacture the vises in large quantities.

    In 1906, Mr. Long patents his first of many wrenches.  Patent #818,180 - Wrench.  This wrench design appears to be the impetus for the Akron Wrench Company, and later the J. R. Long Wrench Company.  DATAMP reports this wrench was produced by the J. R. Long Wrench Company.

    On 7/25/1906, the "intent" to establish what will "likely be called" the Akron Wrench Company, to manufacture the J. R. Long patent wrench, is announced.  The J. R. Long Wrench Company was announced on 9/15/1906 as having been formed "a few days ago" with J. R. Long - Pres., George C. Himmelman - VP, V. P. Wise - SEC., Miles Hoff - TREAS., W. R. Talbot - Council.

    Interestingly, "Industry Notes" in the 8/25/1906 edition of Hardware notes both the intent to form the Akron Wrench Company, and the formation of the J. R. Long Wrench Company.  ​This article notes the incorporators as J. R. Long, Walter R. Talbot, William A. Byrider, Oliver A. Sorrick, and William W. Webb.

    John Reeves Long was also awarded Canadian Patent #97,349 - Wrench in 1906.

    He was again idle in 1907 but produced his second wrench patent in 1908 with Patent #890,146 - Wrench.  DATAMP reports this wrench was manufactured by J. R. Long Wrench Co., Standard Wrench & Tool Co., and Rogers, Printz and Company.

    1909 was again dormant but Mr. Long comes back strong in 1910 with 2 patents for Bench Vises and a Wrench Patent #955,974 - Wrench - Assigned to William Rogers, James P. Rogers, and A. A. Printz.  This appears to be an improvement on his 1908 wrench patent and is again reported by DATAMP to have been produced by Standard Wrench & Tool Co. and Rogers, Printz & Co.

    In an 8/23/1909 newspaper article, Mr. Walter J. Irvin claims royalties against Mr. Long.  Mr. Irvin claims he gained interest in the patent through an agreement between Long and Gibson and Alling.  The petition states that Messrs. Gibson & Alling assigned their interest to Mr. Irvin through Mr. William M. Graham.

    In 1911 he again embellished his previous two wrench patents with Patent #1,007,298 - Wrench.  This patent is not listed in DATAMP but adds a "roller wheel" to the wedge adjustment.

    In 1912 Mr. Long took a break from wrenches and vises inventing a Pipe Cutter, a Pipe Reamer, a Pipe Reaming Machine, and Concrete Step Forms (Forms Assigned 1/2 to A. Roren of NYC).

    On 6/25/1912, John R. Long married Ms. Kitty Fisher.  The announcement notes that they will visit many factories in the east where his inventions are manufactured and likely make their home in Rhode Island.

    Here is an article on Mr. Long's pipe reaming machine from the 9/28/1912 edition of Domestic Engineering.

    1914 brought 2 additional patents for Vises, both assigned to W. A. Byrider of Byrider & Brothers, Akron, OH.

    On 1/13/1914, the death of James Trumbo Long, John's father is announced.

    In 1915, he patented yet another Bench Vise, and another patent for a Means for Reaming & Threading Pipes.

    In 1916, he patented 2 more vises, and another wrench Patent #1,193,163 - Wrench (Pipe Style)

    1917 brought 2 more vises, and another Patent #1,211,461 for a Shellac Jar (Assigned 1/4 to J. C. Gibson of Akron).

    ​In 1918 he patented 1 vise and 1 wrench Patent #1,265,925 - Wrench (Pipe Style)

    ​1919 resulted in 2 more vise patents, and another Patent #1,318,161 - Shellac Jar - Assigned to C. A. Thornton of Cuyahoga Falls.

    Mr. Long took a break in 1920, but in 1921 he patented another Vise

    For his first extended break from inventing, Mr. Long didn't invent anything from 1922 through 1924 but resumed in 1925 with another Vise patent.

    A notice appears in a 9/26/1924 newspaper stating that the case of Kittie Long vs. John R. Long has been dismissed.

    On 10/25/1924 the formation of the Key-Bar Wrench Company is announced.  J. R. Long formed this company in October of 1924 with L. S. Ballard, E. D. Eddy, R. W. Clark and Matthew Eskovitz.

    In 1926 he patented another wrench, Patent #1,583,078 - Wrench - Assigned to Angelus Specialty Company, LA, CA.

    In 1928 he was granted Canadian Patent #277,127 - Wrench - This patent was applied for from Los Angeles, CA on 8/12/1926.

    In 1933, Mr. Long show up in California.  We can tell this is the same inventor due to the style of vises and wrenches shown in the patents.  In 1933 he invented another vise, a pipe wrench Patent #1,932,113 - Pipe Wrench, and a Revoluble Stall for Automobiles.

    A 5/13/1933 article in a Pennsylvania newspaper notes that John R. Long is in Warren, PA attempting to start the manufacture of a new vise.

    1934 produced another wrench Patent #1,968,783 - Wrench - Assigned to Elie A. Farron, LA

    In 1935, Mr. Long patented his final invention, a Universal Fire Hose Coupling.



    Wife (1912) - Kitty Fisher

    • ​Son - George Royal Long (7 months old 8/21/1915)











    Walden Research

    The Incorporation of the Walden Manufacturing Co. is reported in the January 10, 1907 edition of The Iron Trade Review.  Incorporators are noted as Mssrs. Frederick F. Walden and Charles A. Shedd.  This announcement from the following week's edition of the same publication also mentions Charles M. Walden as an incorporator.  The state of MA reports the official date as 12/31/1906.

    The January 1913 edition of Mill Supplies reports the Incorporation of the Walden Tool Company in Boston.  Officers mentioned are Mssrs. P. J. Kingley, F. E. Walden, and W. P. Brown.  Another interesting note is Frederick Walden's patent #912338 for a ratchet wrench does not make assignment to the Walden Mfg. Co.  Rather, it is self assigned.  Also interesting is that in March of 1908, Frederick filed for a Canadian Patent on his original ratchet design, which was awarded 1 month later.

    This exhaustive article on the history and status of Walden-Worcester was published in the Accessory & Garage Journal of 1920 notes that Mr. Bellows did in fact buy out F E Walden in 1907.

    The January 1918 edition of the Automobile Trade Directory carries an advertisement which still lists the company name as the Walden Mfg. Co.  It is unknown when the company formally changed their name, but by July of 1919 they were being referred to as Walden-Worcester, Inc.

    Here is an interesting, albeit brief corporate history published in the October 11, 1919 edition of United States Investor.

    The 1920 Citizens Directory for Worcester lists the following officers for Walden-Worcester, Inc.:

    • Lewis E. Bellows - President
    • Lyman H. Bellows - Secretary
    • Warren S Bellows - Treasurer & GM

    It appears there were in fact 2 courses of action taken by Walden against Blackhawk / American Grinder.  The first, in which Walden has been reported as successful, was a filing with the USPTO for trademark infringement.  Walden argued, apparently successfully, that American Grinder's Blackhawk trademark infringed on Walden's already existing "Tomahawk" trademark.  We are still researching the patent infringement lawsuit.

    The July - September issue of the Iron Age first reports the pending merger of Walden and Stevens, highlighting an upcoming stockholder vote at Walden on July 7, 1926 to ratify the plan.  Having been successfully ratified, the merger is reported in most August 1926 publications of the day.  The new company will be called Stevens Walden-Worcester.

    A 1929 edition of Hardware Age announces a major reorganization and renaming of Stevens Walden-Worcester to Stevens Walden, Inc.  Officers are noted as:

    • Homer W. Bleckley - Director / Pres. & Treasurer & Receiver of Stevens Walden-Worcester, Inc.
    • George W. Fleming - Director / VP & Dir. Sales & President of Fleming Machine Co.
    • Clarence C. Dodge - Director & Manager of George F. Blake Jr. & Co.
    • Frank J. Weschler - Director and President & Treasurer of Baldwin Chain & Mfg. Co.
    • Anton W. Schneider - Director and Works Manager for Reed & Prentice Corp.

    Wright Tool & Forge Research

    Please be advised that this, along with all other "Research" Blogs are just that, research notes.  It is not yet known if the discoveries here have any affilliation with the eventual Wright Tool and Forge.

    1. 1919 - The Iron Age Magazine - Lists a "Wright Tool Co." being formed in Bowling Green, KY by John Wright, S. Peterson and C. E. Wood.  This company appears to have no affilliation with the eventual Wright Tool and Forge.
    2. In a 1920 "Certified List of Foreign and Domestic Corporations" listing, there is also a company named Wright Tool Works Inc. in Waukegan, IL, W. E. Wright (Ward Ellis) is listed as President.  He is still listed as President in a 1929 University of Illinois Alumni listing.
    3. This snippet from the 1925 Iron Trade Review announces the dissollusion of the Wright Tool Co. (Bowling Green, KY) and business to be taken over by J. H. Wright and C. G. Wright.
    4. Patent number 1,712,473 for a socket holder/set was assigned to Wright Tool & Forge, awarded on 05/07/1929.  The important note here is that the application was filed on 8/18/1927 by a George E. McWethy.
    5. This snippet has the Wright Tool & Forge Company being founded in Barberton, OH on 1/22/1927.  It does not list officers / founders.

    The 1/25/1927 edition of The Cincinnati Inquirer announces that Wright Tool & Forge filed with the state as a business on 1/22/1927.  The paper lists the following principals:

    • C. Nelson Wright - 7/29/1926 Member of the Board - Forged Steel Products Co.  President of Wright Tool & Forge // Co-Founder/VP Wooster Brass Co 5/11/1940
    • W. E. Wright - appears to be prior owner of the W. E. Wright Company // Co-Founder of The Montrose Dairy Co. 10/20/1924
    • Edwin W. Brouz ("Brouz" is how his name appears in the Wright founding announcement.  However, we believe he is also referred to in newspapers as "E. W. Brouse" and probably "E. W. Barnes") - Co-Founder of The Main Highways Land Company 6/17/1921 // Co-Founder of The Montrose Dairy Co. 10/20/1924
    • A. H. Cummins - appears to be a lawyer // Co-Founder of Jahant Foundry & Heating Company 11/14/1917 // Co-Founder of Lyman Bailey Rubber Company 11/17/1919 // Co-Founder of Eaton-Handy-Harpham Company 1/16/1920 // Co-Founder of The Main Highways Land Company 6/17/1921
    • C. Blake McDowell - Co-Founder of Jahant Foundry & Heating Company 11/14/1917 // Co-Founder of Lyman Bailey Rubber Company 11/17/1919 // Co-Founder of Eaton-Handy-Harpham Company 1/16/1920 // Co-Founder of The Main Highways Land Company 6/17/1921 // Co-Founder of The Thirty-Eight North Main Street Company 7/24/1923 // Co-Founder of The Rutledge Drug Company 8/7/1923 (also "E. W. Barnes") // Co-Founder of The National Laundry & Cleaning Co 12/23/1923 (also "E. W. Barnes") // Co-Founder of The City View Storage Company 4/12/1926 (also "E. W. Barnes") // Co-Founder of The Akron-Cleveland Speedway Company 8/5/1926 // Co-Founder of The Heldston Land 1/18/1927 (also "E. W. Barnes") // Co-Founder of C. Blake McDowell, Inc. 6/17/1929 // Co-Founder of The Akron Central Tower Company 7/31/1929

    The 2/3/1966 edition of The Akron Beacon Journal reports the retirement of C. Nelson Wright as President and his son, Mr. Richard B. Wright takes the position.  C. Nelson Wright becomes Chairman of the Board.  The 4/3/1972 edition of The Akron Beacon Journal carries the obituary of founder, C. Nelson Wright.  Interestingly, the obituary does note that Mr. Wright was a tool salesman before founding Wright Tool & Forge.  Research continues to determine for whom he sold tools.